National Register Nomination Information:
Located on the banks of the White River, Hartford Village forms a compact center concentrated along Hartford Main Street (Vermont Route 14) with additional structures clustered on the hill to the north of the village. In the late 18th century, the village, then known as White River Village, was the town's first community center and throughout the 19th century it continued to thrive, due to the presence of a variety of industries. Today, Hartford Village is largely residential and one of the five villages which comprise the town of Hartford. It is located one mile west of White River Junction, which emerged in the 20th century as the dominant village center in the town. The resources in Hartford Village, constructed between 1800 and the present day, include the homes of wealthy mill owners and merchants, the more modest dwellings of those who worked in the mills and village businesses, commercial buildings and institutional buildings such as a church (#1) and a school (#56). Despite incremental changes to individual structures, the nominated district taken as a whole possesses integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association.
The spine of the district is Hartford Main Street which extends in an east-west direction, parallel and to the north of the White River. The district also includes structures on a number of lesser intersecting streets which run in a north-south direction. On the north side of Main Street these include Pleasant Street, Park Street and School Street. To the north of Hartford Main Street and parallel to it is Summer Street which commences at the end of Pleasant Street, running east and terminating at School Street. Rising above the village there are also two small streets which run in an east-west direction, set on terraces to the north, -- Mapleside Terrace to the west of School Street and Elmwood Court to the east. In total, the district is comprised of sixty-nine (69) properties, including eighty-one (81) contributing buildings and twenty (20) noncontributing buildings (of which sixteen are noncontributing due to age and four are noncontributing due to alteration).
In the 19th century Hartford Village was the original center of business and industry in the area, with development fueled by a textile mill, grain mill, chair factory and other industries. Today there are few vestiges of the village's industrial history; the majority of the buildings in the district are residential in nature. Approximately two-thirds of the buildings in the village are multi-family rental properties. Single-family houses make up most of the remaining third. The residential structures consist primarily of 1 ½ and 2 ½ story, gablefront buildings. There is a cluster of commercial buildings on Hartford Main Street including several commercial blocks (#13-15), a diner (#24), a 20th century gas station/convenience store (#17), former supermarket (#16) and a modern metal building at the northwest corner of Main Street and School Street (#23). Also within the district are buildings which presently, or in the past, have served institutional uses. Present institutional buildings include the village library (#10), a church (#1), a grange (#25), and the former village school (#56).
Most of the buildings in the district are set close to the road, on relatively flat, small lots. The highest elevations within the district include the Hartford Village School at the top of School Street and Mapleside Terrace. Sidewalks are limited for the most part to Main Street and in recent years some streetscape improvements were made in front of the cluster of commercial buildings including new sidewalks and street trees.
Construction dates within the district range from the early 1800s to the 1990s, although the majority date to the late 19th century. Frame and clapboards construction is dominant; five buildings within the district have brick exteriors, two are constructed of cinderblocks and one is sheet metal. Synthetic sidings of asbestos, aluminum and vinyl cover many of the wood-frame buildings.
Descriptions of the buildings contained in the district begin at the western end of Hartford Main Street, commencing with the Second Congregational Church (#1). From here they proceed along the north side of Hartford Main Street toward the center of the village, including three structures on the south side of the road. Descriptions continue with buildings on Park Street, Pleasant Street, Summer Street and Mapleside Terrace before continuing south along School Street to its terminus at Hartford Main Street. The descriptions end with four structures on Elmwood Court.
1. Second Congregational Church, 237 Hartford Main Street, 1828. Contributing building.
The Second Congregational Church, an outstanding example of a Federal-style church, is a single-story, gablefront, clapboarded structure set on a granite foundation. Dominating the façade is a double portal pavilion, echoing the pedimented main mass which is broken by a two-stage square tower. Each of the entrances contains a six-panel door flanked by pilasters with recessed panels, capped by capitals with incised lines. A louvered fan is located over each doorway with a semicircular molding adorned by diamonds. A single 12/12 doublehung window filled with opal glass and framed by a cornerblock molding is located above each entrance. Fluted Ionic pilasters outline the structure. The cornice includes a full, plan frieze and brackets with guttae. Horizontal flushboard fills the interior pediment while the outer pediment is clapboarded.
A two-stage square tower rises from the front of the gabled roof. The base is sheathed in a rusticated horizontal board and contains a single arched opening on each face, with a pair of brackets supporting each end of the cornice. The second-stage bell chamber is octagonal in plan with a rectangular louvered opening on the four principal faces, framed by pilasters. The lesser angled faces each consist of two pilasters. The octagonal drum is capped by an octagonal cushion roof crowned by a "Flying Breeches" weathervane. The roof of the main structure is sheathed in asphalt shingles and there is a tall brick chimney to the side. The east and west (side) elevations are each three bays wide with 24/24 windows identical to those in the outermost façade bays. The foundation of the side elevations has been replaced with concrete block.
To the west of the church is a single-story, gablefront, vestry addition fronted by a hip-roofed vestibule with central gable dormer. The building rests on a brick foundation. Two 2/2 windows flank the recessed entry containing stairs and a ramp.
In November 1827 a committee was established to select the best place for erecting a meeting house in White River village within one mile of the schoolhouse, to raise funds to construct the building and to estimate the cost of the meetinghouse. Serving on the committee were John Grout, Zerah Brooks, David Trumbull, Jonathan Bugbee and John Strong. Later that month, the building committee presented a plan for a meetinghouse fifty by seventy feet, divided into eighty pews. They estimated the cost of the site in the west end of the village and building to be $4,000. The contract for the building was awarded to Jebediah Dana of Lebanon, New Hampshire. The meetinghouse was dedicated on January 8, 1829 (St. Croix 1974: 44). Architecturally, the church is almost identical to the Congregational Church in the village of West Hartford, although the latter lacks many of the high style architectural details of the Hartford architect, Louis Sheldon Newton. The gallery at the rear of the church was made into a committee room, the windows were filled with opalescent glass and the formerly frescoed interior was renovated with "Colonial" panels and pilasters. Also in 1903, the original 1830 horse sheds were dismantled and new ones (no longer extant) were built along the back of the church (Old and New 1910: 22-23). The adjacent vestry was constructed in 1860 (Tucker 1889: 224).
2. House, 237B Hartford Main Street, c.1800. Contributing building.
Located to the northwest of the Congregational Church (#1) and behind the Dutton House (#3) is this early Cape Cod type dwelling. The 5 x 2-bay, clapboarded structure is capped by an asphalt, gable roof with a small center brick chimney. The tongue-and-groove door is capped by transom lights and a small overhang. Windows on the structure predominantly contain 2/2 sash. There is a single 12/8 window in the gable of the lateral wing extending to the east. A later porch fronts the wing.
The early history of this property is not known. According to an article appearing in The Old and the New in 1901, it was rented out from an early time. The ell is reportedly the former shoe shop of the Paschal Hatch, which was moved from the south side of the road (Old and New 1901: 46-48).
In the early 19th century the house was occupied by the Hoit family and later by Abijah Taft. The Beers Atlas indicates that it was owned by C.S. Hamilton in 1869. In the late 19th century, the house was owned for some time by Charles M. Cone. After Cone's death it was sold in 1935 by Morris Cone to Blanche Countermarsh.
3. Dutton House, 237C Hartford Main Street, c.1850. Contributing building.
Constructed c.1850, this clapboarded, Gothic-style cottage displays a 1 ½-story, gablefront form with a sidehall entrance. The house rests on a granite foundation and is capped by a standing seam metal roof which is spanned on the east side by a shed wall dormer. The recessed entry contains a four-panel door flanked by sidelights. The door surround features pilasters supporting a denticulated entablature. Windows include 2/2 sash as well as later 1/1 and 6/1 sash, all of which are capped by peaked lintels. The 1 ½-story ells displays a steeply-pitched gable wall dormer with a decorative bargeboard raking. The L-shaped porch is supported by cutout porch posts.
The Beers Map indicates that this property was owned by B. Dutton in 1869. According to an article appearing in The Landmark, in 1887 Mrs. Dutton repaired the house and converted it to a two-family dwelling. Deeds indicate that the property was owned by Benjamin and Celina Dutton and that in 1889 Celina Dutton sold it to Mary Cone Terrill for $3000. Mary Terrill's homestead was in White River Junction and this was apparently an investment property for her. The property remained in the Terrill family until 1904 when it was acquired by Gertrude Gillette, who owned it only a short time.
4. Gates House, 233 Hartford Main Street, c.1867. Contributing building.
The Gates House is a late 19th-century wood-frame structure displaying a 1 ½-story
Gablefront and sidehall plan. The clapboard structure rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof with projecting eaves. Plain cornerboards outline the structure, giving rise to a simple frieze. The entrance contains a four-panel door flanked by full sidelights and capped by an entablature lintel which is supported by paired brackets and extends to the cornerboard. Windows on the structure contain 2/2 sash; some of the windows have lost their lipped lintels. Extending to the west is a cross gable.
In 1869 this property was owned by I. Gates, according to the Beers Atlas. Deed records indicate that Isaac Gates, who owned a chair factory in the village, acquired the land in two different transactions in 1867 and 1870. In 1873, Gates sold the property, "the lands and premises we occupy as a homestead in White River Village," to Laura Matthews. The land was sold by the Matthews family to Elvira Hibbard in 1882. A 1890 deed notes that the property had been occupied by Stephen Pingree for the last eight years. Additional land to the west was later added to property, associated with the Barrows House which burned prior to 1926.
5. Newton House, 231 Hartford Main Street, c.1850/c.1900. Contributing building.
The Newton House is a gablefront Greek Revival-style structure which was altered in a Colonial Revival style at the turn of the century. The clapboarded, 1 ½-story structure displays a broad gablefront, outlined by cornerboards, a watertable and plan frieze. The building rests on a granite foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof with a small brick chimney rising from the ridge. The large, offcenter porch displays a hip roof supported by two Roman Doric columns, echoed by two flat pilasters flanking the entrance. The six-panel door incorporates the upper panes of bullseye glass and features a paneled surround and entablature enframement with dentil course. To the west of the porch there is an individual 12/1 window with a group of four located to the east. Upstairs, the façade is lit by three 6/6 windows. On the east elevation there is a three-sided bay window with a shed wall dormer above. A similar shed wall dormer is also located on the west side.
According to The Old and the New, in the early 19th century there was a gambrel-roofed house which stood behind this house and the Morris House (#6). It was built about 1803 and it was later taken down by its last owner and occupant, Paschal Hatch, "who took it down and built the Newton House and the Morris houses, perhaps, in part, out of its remains" (Old and New 1901: 48). G.B. Brockway appears as the owner of this house on the 1869 Beers Map. The house was sold by George Brockway to John H. French in 1871 for $1,400. In 1884, French sold the property to Almira L. Newton. In 1942, Louis Sheldon Newton acquired the property as part of his sister Alla's estate. Newton sold the property to Morris Cone and it subsequently changed hands numerous times.
The eclectic way in which the Greek Revival style structure was updated with Colonial Revival features bears the imprint of Louis Newton's style. Louis Sheldon Newton (1871-1953) was a prominent Vermont architect whose designs included residences, summer cottages, and commercial and public buildings throughout the state, working primarily in a Colonial Revival style. Louis Newton was born in 1871 on a farm in Hartford. He attended St. Johnsbury Academy and went on to study architecture in Boston. He opened his first architectural office in Lebanon, New Hampshire where he remained for a short time before moving to Hartford, where he practiced until 1921, when he moved to Burlington (Sheppard).
6. Morris-Chadbourne House, 229 Hartford Main Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
Currently undergoing rehabilitation, the former Edward Morris House is a two-story, cross-gable structure with a corner tower topped by a conical roof, decorated by a knob, finial and dentil molding. Clad in wide aluminum siding, the structure is capped by an asphalt roof with a brick corbel cap chimney on the west slope. A wrap-around porch fronts the façade and east elevation, supported by turned posts on square bases. The posts are spanned by a wooden, geometric grid balustrade. Sheltered by the porch is a three-sided bay window and a door on the east side of the porch.
Windows on the structure include a mix of 1/1 and 2/1 sash. Projecting from the first and second floors of the east elevation is a boxed window with sash that is outlined by a margin of colored glass, popular during the Queen Anne period. A similar window is seen on the Ephraim Morris House, 221 Hartford Main Street (#9). The west elevation displays a projecting cross gable. A two-story barn/addition extends behind the main house.
In the late 19th century this property was owned by Edward W. Morris (1829-1905), who is also shown as the owner on the 1869 Beers Map. The present building appears to date to about c.1890. Edward Morris died in 1905 and the following year the property was sold by Martha L. Morris to Martha A. Chadbourne. It was sold by Chadbourne's daughter, Ruth Chadbourne Lear in 1921 to Carl and Maude Pecor, who continued to own the property until 1946. Today, the property is known as the "Anna Pluhar House" and has been owned by the Twin Pines Housing Cooperative since 1988. It is noteworthy as the first cooperative apartment house in the state of Vermont (Village Voice Oct. 1992).
7. Cone House, 227 Hartford Main Street, c.1810 or 1869? Contributing building.
The Cone House is a 2 ½-story structure measuring 5 x 2 bays and resting on a concrete foundation. The asphalt roof is punctuated by two interior ridge brick chimneys. The first floor of the wood-frame building is clad in vertical siding with asphalt shingles above and a pent roof emphasizing the division between the two. The building's center entrance displays a pilaster surround. Windows on the structure consist of doublehung 2/2 sash. The opening above the entrance contains glass double doors. Extending behind the main house is a two-story ell sheathed in board and batten siding and capped by a standing seam metal roof.
The exact construction date of this house is not known and there are contradictions regarding its history. The Cone family history indicates that this house was occupied by Morris Cone, a tailor who came to Hartford in 1812. It was later the home of George E. Cone (1826-1895), who was born in the house and lived in the house his entire life. He is shown as the owner on the 1869 Beers Map. George Cone was initially employed as a shoemaker but later had a store located on the south side of Main Street where he sold sewing machines among other things. Deeds suggest that George Cone constructed the house rather than Morris Cone. George Cone purchased his house lot from Luther Pease in 1860 with the condition that a house be built on the premises within two years from that date. The property was sold by George Cone's estate to Hattie Hall in 1895. George Fuller and Alfred Watson acquired the property in 1901. It was served as multi-family housing for many years.
8. Former Congregational Church Parsonage, 225 Hartford Main Street, 1848. Contributing building.
Constructed in 1848, this 2 ½-story, clapboarded building displays a 3 x 3-bay massing and pediment front. Outlining the building are corner pilasters which give rise to a plain frieze. A brick chimney rises off the ridge of the asphalt-shingled roof. The offcenter entrance consists of a three-sided projection with a glass and panel door flanked by partial sidelights. The entrance porch has four chamfered porch posts with bullseye knobs, jigsaw baluster and a denticulated cornice. Windows on the structure were apparently altered at the turn of the century and now contain wide doublehung 8/8 sash with wide center mullions and blinds. The opening over the entrance is a blind opening and a 6/6 window is centered in the gable. A diamond pane window is located on the west side, adjacent to an exterior brick chimney. Behind the main house is a wing with a porch on the east side and an attached single-story shed.
The land on which this house stands is the western half of the lot conveyed to the Second Congregational Church in 1843 by John Strong, Samuel Tracy, Henry B. Brown, Moses French, Samuel Nutt, Mary B. Lyman, Justus Gillet, Philemon Biggs, Zebulon Delano, Alvin Bailey, Jonathan Bugbee, Jr., Simeon Wyman, Warren Gibbs, Dan Bailey, John Newton and William Newton. According to the town history, the parsonage was built in 1848 (Tucker 1889: 224). The building ceased being a church-related residence in 1982.
9. Ephraim Morris House, 221 Hartford Main Street, 1894. Contributing building.
Constructed for the co-owner of the Hartford Woolen Company, this elaborate 2 ½-story structure combines elements of both the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. The main block of the building consists of a rectangular, clapboarded mass capped by a slate, hip roof and resting on a granite block foundation. Rising from the southeast corner is a conical tower of tallow brick. Colonial Revival detailing includes paneled pilasters, dentil and modillion courses on the main block and egg and dart and dentil moldings on the tower. Windows on the main block are irregularly spaced and contain 1/1 windows. Those on the first floor are caped by entablature lintels with dentil courses while the second floor windows feature molded surrounds which extend to the plain frieze. The hip roof is punctuated by pediment dormers containing 6/6 windows, framed by fluted pilasters. On the first floor of the tower the two windows are framed by paneled pilasters and capped by semicircular lunettes with foliate ornament. The two, second-story, tower windows are capped by square entablatures with festoons and swags.
Projecting from the southwest corner is a single-story porch supported by Roman Doric columns which are spanned by turned balusters. Recessed under the porch is a glass and panel door framed by fluted pilasters and capped by a modillioned and denticulated pediment. Windows on the west elevation include two pairs of windows with decorative panels and stained glass. Adjacent to the tower on the east elevation is an exterior chimney of yellow brick. There is a Palladian window on the second floor and a boxed, bay window resting on brackets, as well as small stained glass window, on the first. A similar boxed window is seen on the Edward Morris House, 229 Hartford Main Street (#6).
A single-story porch projects from the rear of the building with columns and balusters like those on the main entrance porch.
9A. Carriage House, 1894. Contributing building.
Behind the main house is this two-story clapboarded carriage house, capped by a hip roof with a central ventilator topped by a flared pyramidal roof. The center opening is flanked by two small 2 x 2 windows. The loft is capped by a shingled gable and fronted by a suspended porch. The first story is fronted by turned posts. Single-story additions (c.1980) with modern fenestration extend on both sides.
This house was built by Ephraim Morris (1832-1901), owner of the Hartford Woolen Company, in 1894 at a cost of $25,000. Morris acquired the property, "the east half of the Parsonage lot" including an older house, in 1858. The foundation of the present dwelling incorporates stones from the two older houses which preceded it (Old and New 1901: 50). The latter of the two burned in 1893, at which time the Morris family was traveling abroad. The Cone family history indicates that Ephraim Morris would have preferred a house very much like the old house, "comfortable and unpretentious," but that his wife prevailed. "Between her and the architect he built a house much finer than his judgment approved." No one else in town lived as lavishly, with the house serviced by two maids and a man for the stable and outside work (Perry 1957: 27).
Ephraim Morris, born in 1832 in Strafford, Vermont, moved to Hartford in 1854 and became one of its most prominent 19th century citizens. With his brother, Edward, Ephraim Morris established two successful businesses in Hartford village, a chair factory and woolen mill. He also built and endowed the Hartford Library and funded the construction of a dormitory at Smith College, named in his honor. In 1906, Ephraim's wife, Almira, sold the house to her younger daughter, Annie M. Stevens, wife of attorney Roland Stevens (b. 1868). In 1958, shortly after Mr. Steven's death, the property was sold to the Bible Baptist Church to be used as a place of worship and parsonage.
10. Hartford Library, 217 Hartford Main Street, 1893. Contributing building.
Constructed in 1893, the Hartford Library is a two-story brick and wood-frame building, capped by an asphalt-shingled hip roof with a decorative flashing ridge. The building reflects elements of both the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles and is the only one in the district which is already listed on the National Register of Historic Places (listed in 1994).
Indicative of the Queen Anne style, the structure displays an asymmetrical massing defined by a two-story, pyramidal-roofed tower capped by a copper finial. The front face of the tower is decorated by recessed panels, bullseyes, and raised wooden letters reading, "HARTFORD LIBRARY". The first floor of the building is sheathed in a brick veneer while the upper story is clapboarded. A flared decorative band of patterned wood shingles in butt end, fishscale and wavy patterns emphasizes the division between the first and second stories. The offcenter porch is capped by a pediment with a dentil molding and shingles in the pediment and pent. The arched opening is shingled and rests on Doric columns which in turn are supported by squat posts with basketweave sides. To each side of the entry is a 1/1 window capped by a yellow brick flat arch lintel with a granite rock-faced sill below. Above the front porch is a tripart window capped by a shallow hood supported by carved brackets and enhanced by a dentil course. The central window contains 8/1 sash and is flanked by two 6/1 windows, separated by fluted pilasters with caps. Adjacent is a small 4 x 2-light fixed window. The roof above is punctuated by a shed dormer with a fixed 7 x 2-light window.
An exterior brick chimney rises from the east elevation, incorporating terracotta panels in diamond circular and square shapes. On the west side of the building stained glass windows accent the bay closest to the façade. The rear elevation of the building is clapboarded, accented only by the outline of cornerboards, a watertable and two-part frieze.
The land for the Hartford Library was donated by Seraph and Horace C. Pease, on land subdivided from their adjacent residential lot. Prominent local residents including Edward W. Morris, Horace Cone Pease, Charles M. Cone, Ephraim Morris and Samuel Pingree founded the library in 1892 and served as trustees. Ephraim Morris donated $10,000 for the construction of the library, reading room and social hall. The building's contractor was Lyman Whipple of Lebanon, New Hampshire. A dedication was held on September 16, 1893, with the President of Dartmouth College, Rev. William Tucker, serving as the featured speaker. The library is reportedly one of the Vermont's earliest examples of a building specifically dedicated for use as a permanent and free repository of circulating printed materials (Heck 1994).
11. Horace Pease House ("Sunnyacre")/Elks Lodge, 215 Hartford Main Street, 1884. Contributing building.
Located at the northwest corner of Main and Pleasant Streets, just east of the Hartford Library, the former Pease House is a Queen Anne-style building constructed about 1885. The two-story, wood-frame structure rests on a granite foundation, is clad in aluminum siding and is capped by an asphalt-shingled hip roof. Historic photographs indicate that a considerable amount of period detailing is obscured by the siding. Centered on the front roof is a gable dormer with two rectangular vents, shingles and incised circles.
Rising from the southwest corner of the building is a two-story, three-sided bay window capped by a gable roof. The Eastlake-style raking is incised and features rounded ends. The pent is sheathed in wood shingles with jigsawn work at the corners. The other corner has an angled two story, rectangular bay window. Windows on the building include a combination of conventional 1/1 sash and doublehung windows with a margin of smaller lights in the upper sash and two panes below.
The house is fronted by a single-story porch supported by turned posts with Eastlake-style square bases and caps, spanned by a wooden grid of balusters. The posts are spanned by braces and over the entrance there is a low pediment with a sunburst motif. The double front doors feature a multi-paned Queen Anne-style upper window and three panels below.
To the west of the main house is a single-story addition resting on a concrete foundation. The large, single-story, flat-roofed addition to the rear was constructed c.1990 by the Elk Lodge. The west side is lit by large sliding glass doors with a porch which replicates the detailing of the front entrance porch.
According to deeds, Horace Pease acquired this property for $2800 in 1883 from Catherine McCracken, who inherited it from her father, George Gere, a cabinetmaker who had a shop at the present site of #12. The house which stood on the property at that time was constructed by Nathan Gere (1765-1825) in 1801 and was moved to Summer Street in 1884, making way for Pease's new dwelling, "Sunnyacre" (Old and New 1901: 52). The house was built as a showplace from his bride, Seraph, whom he married in 1877. The Peases held a "house christening" for their new abode on November 29, 1884, attended by 150 persons.
Horace Cone Pease was born in Hartford in 1844. He was the affluent proprietor of the Pease Hotel, as well as the owner of local lumber and grist mills and a farm tool concern. One of the town's largest real estate owners, Pease donated the western part of his residential lot for the erection of the Hartford Library in 1893 and personally took the initiative for the installation of the Hartford village electric light system. Upon Horace Pease's death, the homestead was acquired by his nephew, Charles W. Pease of Buffalo, New York. It was subsequently sold by Maud Pease to Alfred Watson in 1938. In 1945 the property was acquired by the Elks Club.
The architect of "Sunnyacre" is not definitely known although it is being attributed to Col. Ferdinand Davis, an architect practicing in Lebanon, New Hampshire during this period. Newspaper articles indicate that Horace Pease was quite friendly with Col. Davis, who, with is family, visited "Sunnyacre" shortly before his departure to California in 1887 (Landmark, 10/15/1887). Davis (1840-1921) also designed two prominent Queen Anne style structures in Lebanon, New Hampshire, the Whipple Block and the Soldiers Memorial Building, during this period (Mausolf 1984).
12. Gere-Hamilton-Banagan Building, 211 Hartford Main Street, between 1815 & 1841. Contributing building
Located at the northeast corner of Main and Pleasant Streets, this two-story, gablefront structure has been sheathed in vertical boards in recent years. The first floor storefront has recently been altered yet again and has elevated casement windows and a shed entrance on the east side. A small window is located in the angled southwest corner which formerly contained the principal entrance and is fronted by a stone step. Fenestration on the second floor contains 6/6 windows. The front gable displays simple cornice returns and the roof is sheathed in asphalt shingles with a concrete block exterior chimney at the rear of the building. The rear elevation is sheathed in asphalt siding in a "brick" pattern.
Offset at the northeast corner of the building is a two-story ell sheathed in a combination of asphalt siding and vertical boards. Two shed-roofed additions mark the entries and fenestration includes a mixture of six-panel doors, glass and panel doors and 1/1 windows.
In the early 19th century, between 1815 and 1841 the land on which this building stands was sold by John Grout, who owned the store to the east, to Col. Nathan Gere for a shop for George Gere who was a cabinetmaker. The shop also housed a wheelwright for a time (Old and New 1901: 52). The "tenement" was purchased by Issac Gates from the Hamilton estate in 1886 and soon thereafter Gates tore the ell down (Landmark, 3/27/1886). In 1887 Isaac Gates sold the old Hamilton Store to Hugh Banagan of Quechee for $2000. Banagan planned to occupy it and keep a millinery store there as well (Landmark). According to town history, Mrs. H.J. (Minnie) Banagan was operating a millinery store here in 1889, occupying the rest of the block as a dwelling. Minnie Banagan sold the property in 1923 for $2250 and it has had a number of owners since that time.
13. French Mercantile Block, 209 Hartford Main Street, 1804. Contributing building.
This 2 ½-story frame, gablefront structure was known for many years as the French Mercantile Block. In its present appearance the building is sheathed on the first floor with vertical boards with vinyl siding on the upper portion of the building. The east side elevation is clapboarded and the building rests on a stone foundation. The roof is covered in a combination of sheet metal and rolled asphalt. The center entrance is marked by a low curved door hood supported by a pair of flared brackets. Small 1/1 and 2/2 windows light the first floor. There are larger 1/1 windows on the second floor of the façade. The gable window which was formerly in the attic has been removed and the opening is currently covered with plastic. Spanning the west (side) elevation is a two-story porch resting on a concrete foundation. On the second floor the porch is supported by paneled posts resting on a sided wall. There are two doors and four windows sheltered by the porch.
An undated, early 20th century photograph in the Fellows Collection at Dartmouth College Library shows that this building was at one time fronted by a two-story, similar but much wider, than its neighbor to the east.
13.A Garage, c.1930. Contributing building.
At the rear of the block is a single-story, clapboarded, three-car garage, capped by a shed roof.
The land on which this commercial building now stands was bought in 1801 by Asa Richardson. In 1804 he sold part of the land to Levi Bellows who built and kept a store here, selling it to John Grout in 1815. The property was sold to Moses French in 1841. (Old and New 1901: 52). According to the Beers Map this block was still owned by French in 1869, at which time one storefront was occupied by G.B. Fenno's drug store. From Moses French, the block was passed down to his son, Frederick French, who operated the drug store for many years. A brother, Alfred French also had a store in the building but went bankrupt. According to a description in a 1923 deed, the block was occupied for many years by a drug store, cobbler's shop and barber shop with a dwelling on the second floor. The building was sold by Frederick French's wife, Jennie, to Joseph Coutermarsh in 1921 and remained in the Coutermarsh family until recent years.
14. Commerical Block, 207 Hartford Main Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
This late 19th century commercial block is a 2 ½-story, gablefront structure with a false front. The storefront has been renovated by asphalt-covered hip roof which obscured the original moldings. A turn-of-the-century photograph shows a hood supported by brackets sheltering the first floor. Two plate glass windows flank the recessed entrance containing a modern glass and metal door. Resting on a stone foundation, the upper part of the façade is sheathed in asbestos siding with two 1/1 windows on the second floor and a single 6/6 window centered in the attic above. The block is capped by a wooden frieze and dentil course. A central rectangular panel is flanked by scroll brackets. The side walls of the building are sheathed in wood clapboards. The rear elevation reveals a 2 ½-story gablefront capped by a standing-seam metal roof. A single-story porch spans the first floor. There are three 1/1 windows on the second floor and a single 6/6 window in the attic.
An exact date of construction for this block has not been determined. The property was sold by Horace Pease to Robert Chadbourne in 1900. Chadbourne operated a store here. In 1906 the block contained the post office and a general store. By 1917 the occupants included a meat and grocery store.
15. Brooks Store-Pease Block, 201-203 Hartford Main Street, c.1900. Contributing building.
The Pease Block is a two-story, wood-frame, flat-roofed commercial block with a brick veneer. The first floor retains two storefronts; each has a recessed central entry. The east storefront retains its original glass and panel door, glass bulkhead and transom. On the other storefront, the door has been replaced by a metal and glass door. Between the two storefronts there is a modern, metal six-panel door with transom, leading to upstairs. A wide frieze caps the first floor. On the second floor, window openings are symmetrical and include paired and individual 1/1 windows as well as two thinner windows. All of the openings are capped by brick flat arch lintels with rough stone sills. Capping the block is a bold cornice including a wide frieze, dentils and modillions.
A two-story projecting porch spans the rear elevation and a chimney rises from the east, rear corner of the building.
15A. Storehouse, c.1870. Contributing building.
This two-story barn is oriented with its broad side parallel to Main Street and its gablefront facing the dirt road between Summer Street and Main Street. It is sheathed in a combination of clapboards and horizontal boards and a concrete block chimney rises from the metal roof. There are 2/2 windows on the east gablefront which displays projecting eaves. The south side is punctuated by two modern overhead garage doors in addition to two upper loft openings. The 1906 Sanborn map indicates that this building was used for the storage of hardware and that there was an additional storehouse to the east which as been removed.
A commercial building, first occupied by Emerson and Davis, was located on this site in 1815. The property was sold to Justin Brooks in 1834, who operated a store here for many years and served as postmaster from 1841 until 1871. According to a description in 1901, the building was originally "narrower than at present and a story and a half high. It has been in every way enlarged from its original dimensions" (Old and New 1901: 52). The property was sold by Brooks' daughter, Sarah B. French, to Allen Pease in 1881. Pease operated a store and post office in one half of the building; the grange also occupied this half for a time. The property was sold by Horace C. Pease in 1900 to Martha Chadbourne. The other half of the building was owned for many years by William Braley and was later owned by Arthur Child and occupied by Floyd Coutermarsh.
Inspection of Sanborn Insurance Maps suggests that the building was renovated shortly after 1900, probably including the brick veneer. The brick exterior was in place by 1906 and a 1915 deed notes that the transaction "includes all improvements made in premises". In 1906 the block contained a general store on the first floor and apartments above. Occupants in 1917 included the post office and general store on the first floor and offices upstairs.
16. Aher Building, 197 Hartford Main Street, 1952. Noncontributing building [due to age].
This single-story, concrete block building was constructed in 1952. The original large plate glass windows have been infilled with vertical boards, leaving just three small rectangular windows on the façade. The metal canopy sheltering the façade has also been removed. A glass and metal door is located at the east front corner of the building. The east elevation of the building retains three horizontal 3 x 2 light windows and a single 6/6 window. At the rear of the building is a small extension fronted by a concrete loading dock with double wooden doors.
This building was erected by Charles and Daniel Aher in 1952 as the new headquarters for their grocery business. After their retirement, the store was occupied for a short time and then stood vacant until 1970 when it was purchased by John Lutz and Philip Garran. The building was occupied for a number of years by the Imperial Company, makers of albums for stamp collectors (St. Croix 1974: 353).
17. Commercial Building, 191 Hartford Main Street, c.1950. Noncontributing building [due to age].
This combination gas station/convenience store consists of an older (c.1950) concrete block building with a later shed-roofed addition spanning part of the front and sheathed in vertical T111 siding. A concrete block chimney rises from the rear elevation.
The building is located on the site of the former Pease Hotel, and important local landmark. The last portion of the hotel, the Old Pease or Waston Hall, was destroyed by fire in 1941.
18. Follensbee House, 189 Hartford Main Street, c.1960. Noncontributing [due to age].
Located behind the gas station, this single-story residence is sheathed in wide siding and rests on a concrete foundation. The gable roof is sheathed in standing seam metal with a brick chimney rising from the front slope. On the façade the overhang of the roof shelters the façade including the front entry which is flanked by plate glass windows. Windows contain 1/1 sash and are flanked by decorative shutters. A single story ell projects from the rear.
This small 0.4 acre lot was sold by the Sanborn Oil Company to Robert and Lorraine Follensbee in 1958.
19. Braley-Garipay House, 187 Hartford Main Street, 1915. Contributing building.
Constructed in 1915, the Braley-Garipay House is a two-story, Foursquare structure clad in asbestos siding and capped by a slate hip roof. The offcenter entrance is marked by a low pediment supported by paired Roman Doric columns resting on a shingled base and is fronted by concrete steps. A single-story porch, also featuring Roman Doric columns, spans the façade and the east elevation. The shingled bases are spanned by stick balusters. The front door contains a glass and panel door flanked by full sidelights. The first floor doublehung windows have a small upper sash over a larger bottom sash. On the second story there are smaller 1/1 windows; an individual window is over the entrance with a paired window adjacent. Simple shelf lintels cap the windows which are flanked by shutters.
Projecting from the east elevation is a two-story, three-sided bay window capped by a hip roof and resting on a brick foundation. A rear porch on the east side is supported by Roman Doric columns.
19A. Garage, c.1915. Contributing building.
The driveway on the west side of the house leads to a two-car garage capped by a steeply-pitched gable roof
This house appears to have been built by William Braley on land which he purchased from Franklin Lawrence in 1915. Braley operated the post office and an undertaking business in the village for many years. Braley continued to own this residence until 1924 when it was sold to Helen Meech and Carrie Mould. The property was sold to Stanley Garipay in 1938. Both Stanley and Loretta Garipay were village physicians who practiced in the house. Loretta Garipay bequeathed the property to the Hartford Historical Society in 1995.
20. Wyllys Lyman House, 185 Hartford Main Street, 1828. Contributing building.
The Lyman House is an outstanding example of a Federal-style, gablefront residence with a sidehall plan. The front of the 2 ½-story brick building rests on a granite foundation while the foundation of the side elevations is mortared stone. The slate roof is punctuated by two brick chimneys. The entrance contains a six-panel door flanked by blinds and capped by a divided fanlight. Semicircular relieving arches cap the first floor 2/2 windows on the three-bay façade, as well as the east and west elevations, and the center window on the second floor of the façade. The outer bays on the second floor façade contain 2/2 windows with splayed lintels, capped by semicircular louvered fans. The raking and horizontal cornice display partial returns, a bead molding and modillions with incised holes.
Behind the main house is a two-story brick wing with a modern two-story porch on the east side and an exterior staircase. The rear portion of the wing is sheathed in wood shingles. Behind the house is a modern vertical board shed.
20A. Lyman Law Office, 1828. Contributing building.
To the west of the main house is a 1 ½-story, 3 x 4-bay, gablefront brick building resting on a stone foundation and capped by a slate roof with a brick chimney on the side slope. The three-bay façade is capped by simple cornice returns and displays a semicircular fanlight over the sidehall entry. The entrance now contains a plain modern wooden door which is fronted by granite steps. Windows on the structure contain doublehung 2/2 windows with splayed lintels. The attic is punctuated by a fixed 4 x 3-light window with a metal vent.
The house was built by Elias Lyman for his son, Wyllys Lyman, who was a lawyer and had his office in the small adjacent brick building. The head carpenter of the house was "the father of Charles Dana, of West Lebanon" (Lyman 1925). Wyllys Lyman (1797-1862) was educated at Dartmouth, Yale and Harvard Law School and married Sarah Marsh of Woodstock. Elias Lyman (b. 1768) had the house specially built for the couple; it was furnished completely by the bride's father, Charles Marsh. The Lymans only occupied the house for five years before moving to Burlington. The house stood vacant for several years before being purchased by Mr. Willard, Mrs. Harriet Hamilton's father. The house was owned by the C.S. Hamilton family for many years (Old and NewOld and New 1901: 55). In the early 20th century the property was owned by Allen Hazen of New York City who used it as a summer home. Mr. Hazen, of the firm of Hazen and Whipple, was an expert in the purification of water and disposal of sewage (Old and New 1910: 57).
The small brick office was occupied in the mid to late 19th century by S.E. and S.M. Pingree, attorneys. In 1888 Dr. Horace Watson rented the office from Mrs. Hamilton (Landmark 9/22/1888). In the early 20th century it was occupied by Louis Sheldon Newton, architect (Directories).
Elias Lyman, who had the house constructed in 1828, was one of Hartford's most successful early 19th century businessmen and entrepreneurs and was largely responsible for the town's early commercial development. Lyman came to Hartford in 1796 and with his brother, Justin, engaged in various mercantile enterprises up the Connecticut River. In 1804 Elias Lyman built the first bridge (known as "Lyman's Bridge") across the Connecticut River between the town of Hartford, Vermont and the town of West Lebanon, New Hampshire. He built the dam and cotton mill at White River Village as early as 1823 (Lyman 1925).
21. Kneeland-Cond House, 173 Hartford Main Street, 1804, 1890/1897. Contributing building.
The Kneeland-Cone House is a 2 ½-story, 5 x 2-bay structure sheathed in vinyl siding with an asbestos shingled, gambrel roof. Marking the corners of the building are two-story fluted pilasters on paneled bases which give rise to a frieze which is decorated by intersecting scallops which make diamond patterns. The double-doored entrance is framed by fluted pilasters with capitals decorated by floral motifs. Above the entrance the divided semicircular fanlight is framed by a broken pediment. Windows contain 1/1 sash. Those on the first floor of the façade are capped by entablature lintels which display decorative friezes echoing the building's main frieze. The second floor façade windows lack lintels; the tops of the windows extend to the frieze. Punctuating the front roof slope are three dormers with decorative pediments and containing 6/1 windows. A lunette window lights the attic on each of the side elevations. Extending behind the main block is a two-story ell displaying a shed dormer and rear porch supported by thin Roman Doric columns on the east elevation.
21A. Garage, c.1935. Contributing building
To the east of the house is a two-car garage constructed of novelty siding. The shed roof has been removed and two pairs of plain double doors access the front.
The original house on this site was erected by Joseph Kneeland about 1804, consisting of a 2 ½-story, side-gabled structure without an ell. It was acquired by Justin Brooks in 1831 who added an ell. The Brooks family continued to own the house for the next fifty years. According to the Cone family history, the house was purchased by Charles Cone in 1883 in anticipation of his marriage to Kate Morris the following February. Charles Cone (1854-1935) graduated from Dartmouth in 1875 and married Ephraim Morris' daughter, Kate, in 1884. After the deaths of Ephraim Morris in 1901 and Edward Morris in 1905, Charles Cone assumed control of the Hartford Woolen Company.
There seem to be considerable contradictions regarding the history of the various alterations made to the building over the years. The Cone family history specifically notes that the front entrance and Palladian window were in place when Cone purchased the property. It also indicates that Charles Cone was personally responsible for much of the initial repair work after he purchased the property (Perry: 86-7). There are numerous sources which state that the house was seriously damaged by a fire in 1889 and was rebuilt in 1890, in a more ornate Colonial Revival style, although the Cone family history makes no mention of either. The papers of local Hartford architect, Louis Sheldon Newton, now at the University of Vermont, indicate that in 1897 the house was altered and expanded in the Georgian Revival style for Charles Cone. The alterations are of interest as Newton's earliest commission of record. The 1897 renovations included raising the gable roof a full story and turning it into a gambrel and adding pedimented dormers. The round-arch window was already in place over the entrance but Newton repeated the lunette of the Georgian doorway in the side gambrel. The Cone family history states that the gambrel roof was added in 1905 as well as a few other architectural trimmings. The proposed rooms in the attic were apparently never finished due to cost considerations. Electricity was not added until 1919 as Kate Cone feared that it would lead to fire, which had destroyed her parents' (Ephraim Morris) home. Illustrations of the Cone House appeared in the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, in 1922, to contrast with what were considered some fine examples of original Georgian detail (Sheppard 1985: 6). During the Cone family's tenure, the property was home to a menagerie of animals including rabbits, raccoons and foxes, contained in a twenty-foot screen pavilion.
The land to the east of the Kneeland-Cone House, where the garage now stands, is referred to in deeds as the French or Perry lot. According to deeds the house on the lot, shown on Sanborn maps as a 1 ½-story gablefront dwelling, was moved from the site about 1935 (Deeds 1936, Book 46, Page 45). It appears that this is the house which is now located at 6 Park Street (#27).
22. Morris Cone House, 177 Hartford Main Street, 1919. Contributing building.
Located at the end of a long driveway behind the Charles Cone House (#21), this Colonial Revival dwelling is 2 ½ stories in height with a massing of 3 x 2-bays. The clapboarded building rests on a granite foundation and is capped by a gable roof which is sheathed in asbestos shingles. A pedimented dormer penetrates the front roof slope, containing a 6/6 window. The central entrance displays a paneled door capped by a fanlight. A single-story porch spans the façade, supported by clustered Roman Doric columns. Both the gable ends are pedimented and an exterior brick chimney rises from the east elevation. Extending to the west of the main block is a single-story garage wing with arched openings echoing a Federal-style carriage shed.
22A. Garage, c.1930. Contributing building.
To the southwest of the main house there is a single-story, two-car garage, sheathed in clapboards above a concrete foundation a capped by a shed roof.
This Colonial Revival dwelling was constructed for Morris Cone (1890-1949), son of mill owner Charles Cone, about 1919. After Morris Cone's marriage in 1917 this former storehouse, built in 1895, was transformed into a house. As originally constructed the building housed carriages and sleighs downstairs and furniture upstairs (Perry: 111). Upon his father's death in 1935, Morris Cone became president and general manager of the Hartford Woolen Company. After Morris Cone's death in 1949, the house was sold by Jessie Cone to Daniel and Helen Aher in 1954. The Aher family continued to own the property until several years ago.
23. Commercial building, 2 School Street, c.1960. Noncontributing building [due to age].
Located at the northwest corner of Hartford Main Street and School Street, this c.1960 storage building is constructed of sheet metal with a low pitch gable roof. It rests on a concrete block lower level with two garage doors facing Main Street and an additional garage door on the west side. Windows are horizontal sliding units. Fieldstone walls run along the property lines on School and Main Street.
24. Hartford Diner, 190 Hartford Main Street, c.1940. Contributing building.
The Hartford Diner is a single-story structure resting on a concrete foundation and capped by a curved roof. It is sheathed in a combination of tongue and groove boards, plywood panels and T111 siding. Centered on the longer elevation, the glass-and-panel door is capped by a curved doorhood supported by plain brackets. To one side of the entrance there are four plate glass windows while on the other there are three plate glass windows and a single 1/1 window. The end elevations are lit by 1/1 windows.
The Hartford Village Diner was built by Victor and Alice Martin on its present site around 1937. As business grew the diner became too small and about 1944 the Martins bought the lot across the road (#16) and built a larger diner. The diner remained on this site for about four years, at which time the Martins moved the larger diner back to its original site. The lot across the street was later sold to Dan and Charles Aher who built the cinderblock supermarket building on the site (Aher 1992).
25. Cascadnac Grange, 194 Hartford Main Street, c.1870. Contributing building.
Originally used as a grain store, the Grange building is a single-story, wood-frame structure capped by a shed roof. The building is sheathed in asphalt shingles and T111 siding and rests on a brick foundation, which is exposed at the rear by the sloping site. An exterior chimney of concrete blocks rises from the west side of the building. A single-story porch with a ramp spans the façade, supported by plan posts. The eastern part of the porch has been partially enclosed and is accessed by a late 19th century glass and panel door. Centered on the façade is a set of double doors, displaying 2 x 2 panes (now covered) over two panels. Adjacent to the door is a large 2/2 window.
The Cascadnac Grange #507 was organized in December 1931 with over forty charter members. It takes its name from the Abenaki Indian name for "white river." The Cascadnac Falls were located where the dam used to be. Early grange meetings were held in the former Pease or Watson Hall and later in A.D. Child's former store in the Pease Block (Aher 1992). In 1936 Edwin J. Pease sold Trumbull and Pease's former grain store building to the Grange for a meeting place.
26. House, 228 Main Street, c.1850. Noncontributing building [due to alteration].
The present appearance of this 19th century building is the result of renovations in 1988. The two-story, vinyl-sided structure rests on a concrete foundation. The building is oriented with its long elevation to the road. Fenestration includes 1/1 windows with shutters.
The early history of this building is not completely clear. It would appear that this building is depicted on the 1869 map as being owned by M. French. In the early 20th century it was owned by Sybil and Alfred Chadbourne until 1906. Louis Sheldon Newton owned the tenement for twenty years until 1926 when he sold it to Burton Shepard. The Shepard family owned it until 1956; William Hazen was the owner for the next thirty years.
27. French House, 6 Park Street, c.1850, moved to site in 1935. Contributing building.
A typical vernacular Greek Revival structure, this 1 ½-story, gablefront cottage displays a sidehall plan. The recessed entrance displays a paneled embrasure and is capped by an entablature lintel. It contains a four-panel door. The building rests on a foundation which is faced with concrete and is capped by a slate roof with projecting eaves. A small brick chimney rises from the ridge and a shed wall dormer is located on the south side. The building is covered by vinyl siding and windows contain replacement 1/1 sash with lipped lintels.
Sanborn Insurance Maps indicate that this land remained vacant until at least 1925. It appears that this house was moved by the Cone family from the Main Street lot east of the Kneeland-Cone House (#21) about 1935 in order to enlarge their house lot and allow room for a garage (Deed 1936, Book 46, Page 45). The Park Street property was owned by Charles Cone in the late 19th and early 20th century. Cone's heirs sold 6 Park Street, including the house, to Alfred Watson in 1935 who continued to own it until 1946.
The exact construction date of the house is not known although stylistic evidence suggests a date of c.1850. According to the Cone family history, the house was built by J.W. French before he married Sarah Brooks (Perry 86). The 1869 Beers Map shows that the house was then owned by J.W. French. Justus W. French was one of the owners of what was later known as French, Watson & Co., makers of hay forks, garden rakes and other steel implements for farming purposes (Tucker 1889: 124). The property was acquired by Charles Cone in the early 20th century. After his daughter Alice Cone married Stephen Perry in 1917 the house was remodeled for their use (Perry 111).
28. House, 3 Pleasant Street, by 1906. Contributing building.
Set just a few feet from the rear of 211 Hartford Main Street (#12) is this modest 1 ½-story, wood-frame building. Resting on a stone foundation and sheathed in aluminum siding, the structure is capped by an asphalt roof with a brick chimney on the north roof slope. The gablefront is fronted by a single-story, glassed porch displaying attenuated Roman Doric columns resting on a low wall. The front entry contains a glass and horizontally-paneled wooden door. The front gable is lit by a pair of 1/1 windows framed by the projecting eaves above. There is a shed wall dormer on the south side and a rear porch supported by Roman Doric columns. A single-story, shed-roofed addition projects from the north side.
The earliest deed associated with this parcel indicates that in 1888 Isaac Gates sold a larger piece of land including this property to Clara Freeman. At Clara Freeman's death, the house was bequeathed in 1916 to Jennie Atto who sold it to Placide Adams in 1924. From 1926 to 1946 this building was owned by William and Daisy Coutermarsh. The building is shown on the 1906 Sanborn map.
29. Ryder House, 5 Pleasant Street, 1865 or earlier. Contributing building.
Displaying little or no ornament, this simple two-story house was apparently built from a former blacksmith shop. The gablefront building rests on a mortared stone foundation and is sheathed in aluminum siding. As Sanborn Insurance Maps show a 1 ½-story on this site as late as 1925, it appears that the roof was later raised to its present height and low pitch. Entry to the house is through a single-story, glassed porch to the south of the main house block. It is lit by continuous 6/1 windows resting on a low wall; the same window type also lights the house. A single-story, broad-sided barn/garage extends to the south from the rear of the house.
According to deed records, in 1865 Luther Pease sold Eliza Ryder for $700 this "piece of land where the new house recently built or converted from a blacksmith shop now stands". Mrs. Rider (sp) is shown as the owner on the 1869 Beers Atlas. An item in the local newspaper reports that Mrs. Ryder had the ell of her house raised in 1888 (Landmark, 6/9/1888). In 1894 the property was sold by Ryder's estate to Horace Pease who sold it to Robert Chadbourne in 1904. Later owners included Edwin and Celia Clark and Fanny Wright.
30. Fenno or Jeffery House, 7 Pleasant Street, c.1860. Contributing building.
This 1 ½-story, 5 x 2-bay, clapboarded Classic Cottage rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof with a small brick chimney emerging from the ridge. Simple cornerboards give rise to a plain frieze and projecting eaves. The center entrance contains a modern, multi-glass and paneled door. Like the 6/6 windows, the entrance is capped by a simple lipped lintel. Offset to the southeast is a single-story wing on a concrete foundation, partially fronted by a single-story, enclosed porch lit by 1/1 windows. The side entrance is marked by a doorhood supported by jigsawn brackets.
The house stands on a small level lot at the southeast corner of Pleasant and Summer Streets. A granite marker is located at the corner.
According to the Beers Atlas this house was owned by D.S. Chapman in 1869. Deed records refer to this as the Fenno or Jeffery House. In 1908 the house was willed to George N. Fenno by his mother, Laura. Fenno continued to own the property until 1936 when he sold it to William Braley, who sold it to Ernest and Virginia Grenon in 1942. Virginia Grenon continues to live here today.
31. Roberts House, 8 Pleasant Street, c.1910. Contributing building.
A variation on the Foursquare house form, but displaying an "L-shaped" plan, this two-story building displays a clapboarded first floor with wood shingles above and is capped by a hip roof. It is set on a concrete block foundation. Wrapping around the two-bay wide façade and north elevation is a single-story porch supported by attenuated Roman Doric columns. Windows on the structure include 1/1 doublehung windows and a vertically divided window adjacent to the glass-and-paneled front door. Set back to the northwest is a two-story ell displaying the same wall surfaces, fenestration and detailing.
31A. Barn/Garage, c.1910. Contributing building.
To the east of the main house is this single-story clapboarded building, capped by a metal roof and resting on a concrete foundation. There are two garage doors on its broad façade and a rear addition.
Inspection of Sanborn maps indicates that this house was built sometime between 1906 and 1917. It appears that there was an earlier house on the site, possibly destroyed by fire. There was also originally another building to the east of the present structure, closer to Pleasant Street. Deeds indicate that in 1908 George Riley sold the property (presumably just the land) to Edward and Esther Roberts for $900. A later 1935 deed states that the Roberts had resided in the house for 24 years, suggesting a construction date of about 1911. The property remained in the Roberts family until 1963 when Doris Roberts sold it to George and Hazel Thomas who lived here until 1988.
32. Allard House, 31 Summer Street, c.1915. Contributing building.
Resting on a brick foundation, this 1 ½-story, gablefront house displays several characteristics of the Bungalow style including its wood-shingled exterior, wooden brackets at the rather modestly overhanging eaves and a front porch with wood shingled bases under the Roman Doric columns. Fenestration includes 6/1 and 1/1 doublehung sash as well as a diamond-paned window. Centered over the porch is a tri-part window containing a central a 6/1 sash flanked on each side by a 4/1. There is an exterior brick chimney on the west side and on each roof slope a shed wall dormer breaks through the asphalt-shingled roof.
It appears that this house was preceded on the site by an earlier structure. The present building was built sometime after Martha Hutchinson sold the property (with earlier structure) to Antoine Allard in 1914. The property was subsequently acquired by Gordon Goular in 1933.
33. Pecor House, 29 Summer Street, by 1906. Contributing building.
Largely obscured by a large pine tree, this two-story structure displays an L-shaped plan and an exterior sheathed in aluminum siding with projecting eaves. The late 19th century house rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof. The front gable rests on a three-sided first floor with a single-story porch filling the volume between the front and side gabled sections. The porch is supported by turned posts resting on a low wall. The front door displays an upper glass and lower panels. A side entrance is marked by a shed doorhood supported by brackets.
33A. Garage, c. 1940. Contributing building.
A driveway runs along the west side of the house, terminating at this single-car, gablefront garage sheathed in clapboards and resting on a concrete foundation.
The exact date of construction of this house is not known. Its form and detailing suggested it was constructed in the late 19th century. Its existence on the 1906 Sanborn Map indicates it was constructed in the late 19th century. Its existence on the 1906 Sanborn Map indicates it was constructed sometime prior to that year. The house was sold by Maude Pecor Robinson to Arthur and Dorothy King in 1937.
An additional house was located to the west of this house, set back from the street and known as the Mary Simonds place. It was removed sometime after 1938.
34. Trescott House, 27 Summer Street, c.1870? Contributing building.
A somewhat late example of the Greek Revival style, this 1 ½-story structure displays a three-bay gablefront and sidehall plan. It is set close to the street with two large pine trees obscuring the façade. A wooden arbor is located in the front of the entrance. Sheathed in aluminum siding, the house rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof. The offcenter entrance contains a glass and horizontal paneled front door flanked by full sidelights. Windows contain a modern replacement 1/1 sash.
Extending to the east is a lateral ell with an enclosed front porch which is largely obscured by a pine tree. The ell retains a 12/12 window in the attic and a rear porch supported by a chamfered post and jigsawn bracket.
34A. Barn, c.1910. Contributing building.
To the northeast of the house is a small freestanding, clapboarded barn displaying a low pitch gablefront and an angled, bay opening.
Deed research indicates that the property was transferred from Hannah Trescott to her daughter Mary J. Trescott in 1887. Mary Trescott died an accidental death by burning in 1909 (Old and New 1910). Later owners include Charles Sturtevant, Alice Gauthier and Hugh and Emma Ray.
35. Aiken-Richardson House, 26 Summer Street, c.1870. Contributing building.
This 1 ½-story dwelling is unusual for its orientation; its entrance is in one of the two bays on the broad side facing Pleasant Street. The vinyl-sided house rests on a brick foundation and is capped by a standing seam metal roof. The main entrance contains a modern glass and panel door and original windows have been replaced by a modern 1/1 sash. The side gables are each two bays wide. Extending behind the main house is a two-story ell with a projecting east section sheathed in vertical pine boards, where an attached barn was historically located.
35A. Garage, c.1920. Contributing building.
To the rear of the house is a single-story garage building displaying rusticated concrete block walls and metal roof. The shingled gablefront is punctuated by two modern overhead garage doors.
This house postdates the 1869 Beers Map. The earliest deed found for the property indicates that in 1878 Edwin Watson, administrator of the estate of Luther Pease, sold the property to Allen Pease. Pease in turn sold it for $900 to Captain Joseph Aiken, who, according to deeds, was already occupying the property. William Richardson purchased the property from J.B. Rand in 1887 for the sum of $1837. Horace Pease owned the property from 1895 until 1920; Ferry Kidder was the owner from 1920-1935.
36. Peck-Barrows House, 25 Summer Street, c.1881. Contributing building.
The 5 x 2-bay, 1 1/2 -story, Classic Cottage rests on a brick foundation and is capped by a standing seam metal roof with a rebuilt modern brick chimney located just off the ridge. The wood-frame house is covered with wide aluminum siding and displays projecting eaves. A single-story, three-bay porch spans the façade, supported by chamfered posts which are spanned by jigsawn balusters with the airspace below the porch also enclosed with jigsawn members. The center entrance contains a wooden door with two upper glass panes. Windows on the building contain 2/2 sash with exterior storm windows. A 1 ½-story ell on a brick foundation, connects the main house with a large, clapboarded barn behind. The ell features a peaked wall dormer window opening on the east side with a porch below, supported by chamfered posts. The barn rests on a concrete foundation and has three bay openings on the east side, with a 6/6 window facing the street. Behind the house there is a small shed, sheathed in vertical board siding.
Deeds indicate that in 1881 Allen Pease sold this property to Henry Peck for $1000. In 1887 John and Maria Barrows purchased H.H. and Luck Peck's house for $1500. The local newspaper describes the location as being on "Back Street" (Deeds, Landmark, 4/30/1887). John Barrows was employed as a stone mason and jobber. The estate of Maria Barrows sold the property in 1915. The Crowell family owned the property from 1925 until 1971.
37. French-Tye House, 24 Summer Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
The late 19th century, woodframe house is 1 ¾ stories in height with a sidehall plan and projecting eaves. The exterior has been covered with vinyl siding and the foundation is covered with concrete. A single brick ridge chimney punctuates the asphalt roof. The main entrance contains a four-panel door; the windows are a replacement 1/1 sash. Extending behind the main house is a single-story addition with a low pitch roof. There is a porch with turned posts on the west side and a concrete chimney. Offset to the southwest is a two-story barn set at right angles. Modern fenestration has been added to the elevation facing Summer Street; there is a 6/6 window in the attic.
Based on the Beers Map and deeds, this house postdates 1869. The earliest deed found for the property indicates that in 1882 Allen Pease sold the lot to Harriet Pease for $600. In 1893 Pease sold the land and premises to John French, who lived there only four years. Joseph Tye acquired the property in 1896. It was sold by the estate of Mary Tye Baker to her husband, Marcellus Baker, and son-in-law, George Roberts, in 1940. It was occupied for many years by George and Doris Roberts. Deed records describe the location of the house as the corner of Summer Street and "Hotel Avenue".
38. Ray-Chadbourne House, 23 Summer Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
Exhibiting some similarities in massing with its contemporary neighbor at 25 Summer Street (#36), this 1 ½-story, Classic Cottage rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt-shingled roof with two interior ridge brick chimneys. The 5 x 3-bay house is sheathed in wide aluminum siding and the windows contain 2/2 sash with exterior storm windows and blinds. The center entrance is sheltered by a single bay wide, flat-roofed entrance porch supported by Roman Doric columns. A similarly detailed, single-story porch spans the east end of the house. Extending behind the house is a 1 ½ story-ell capped by a standing seam metal roof. Attached to the rear is a later shed roofed garage with two door openings. It is sheathed in T111 siding and rests on a concrete foundation.
The early history of this house is not known. The "houselot" was owned by Anthony Ray, a carpenter, by 1892. A 1927 deed refers to this as the Parker or Chadbourne house. Annie Chadbourne died in 1926. Nellie Chadbourne sold the property to the Crowell family in 1930. They continued to own it until 1971.
39. Waterman-Campion House, 21 Summer Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
This 1 ¾-story house rests on a brick foundation and is capped by a standing seam metal roof with a brick chimney on the ridge. The three-bay wide façade has a sidehall entrance with a wooden door displaying two upper rectangular glass panes. Sheltering the glass-and-panel front door is a single bay wide, single story entrance porch with chamfered posts and jigsawn balusters. The airspace below is covered with lattice work. Windows on the structure contain 2/2 sash. Extending to the east is a single-story lateral ell fronted by a porch which echoes the detailing of the front porch. Part of the side has been enclosed.
An 1898 map of the subdivision and a 1904 deed reference for the adjoining property refers to this as the Waterman Property.
The property is located within the Summer Street Extension area lotted by the C.W. Pease estate in 1898. Allen Pease sold this property to Charles H. Waterman in 1892. The property was later sold by Horace Pease to Mrs. Mary A. Champion in 1917. In 1936 the deed notes that the property was "long occupied by William Champion as a homestead".
40. Davis-Chadbourne House, 19 Summer Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
The mirror image of its neighbor at 21 Summer Street (#39), this house consists of a 1 ¾-story gablefront block with a lateral ell. Displaying a sidehall plan, the house rests on a brick foundation and covered with vinyl siding. The façade is fronted by a single-story, glassed porch. The front door displays a large oval glass. Windows on the structure contain 2/2 sash with exterior storm windows. Extending to the west is a 1 ½-story ell on a brick foundation. Like the main house it displays projecting eaves. A shed wall dormer breaks through the front roof slope and a small entrance porch projects. There is a modern deck at the rear.
Deeds indicate that this property, Lot 12 of the C.W. Pease Estate House Lots laid out in 1898, was sold by Horace C. Pease to Sybil Chadbourne in 1904. At that time, the property was described as the "same premises hereto occupied by the Davis Family". Alfred B. Chadbourne sold the property, "with all buildings", to Charles Sturtevant in 1909, who sold it to Warren C. Morse ten years later. Morse continued to own and occupy the property until 1954.
41. Pease & Fuller Tenement House, 15-17 Summer Street, c.1892. Contributing building.
This "four tenement" house was constructed about 1892 for Allen Pease and George Fuller. The 2 ½-story, 6 x 3-bay, side-gabled structure is sheathed in aluminum siding and rests on a brick and concrete block foundation. Two interior chimneys rise from the ridge of the standing seam metal roof. The two center entrances contain four panel doors with the two upper rectangular panels glazed. Marking the entrance is a single story, two-bay wide entrance porch supported by square posts above a wooden deck, wooden stairs and a latticed airspace. Windows on the structure contain 2/2 sash with exterior storm windows.
Behind the western portion of the house there is a single-story addition. A two-story ell with exterior rear ramp projects from the east half of the house. It is fronted by a single-story, prefabricated storage building to the west.
According to the Summer Street Extension Plan filed by the C.W. Pease Estate in 1898, this house lot (no. 11) was sold to George Fuller. Deed records indicate that the land was sold by William Chandler to Allen Pease and George Fuller in 1892 for $600. In 1895 George Fuller conveyed his half interest to Alfred E. Watson, who continued to own the property until his death in 1950.
42. Daily House, 14 Summer Street, c.1968. Noncontributing building [due to age].
Set on land which was originally part of the Pease-Watson Hall lot, this 1 ½-story duplex appears to date to the late 1960s. The house is sheathed in wide asbestos siding, with a concrete foundation and asphalt roof with a small brick chimney. The façade measures four bays wide with an entrance located at each end of the façade. Each entrance contains a six-panel door with the top pair of panels glazed. Windows contain 8/8 sash with picket-style shutters.
Deeds indicate that in 1968 this parcel of land, without buildings, was sold to Mildred Dailey. It was historically part of the Pease-Watson Hall lot, part of the Pease Hotel property.
43. Day-Dudley House, 12 Summer Street, c.1859, moved to present site in 1895. Contributing building.
Moved to this site in 1895, this Greek Revival-style residence displays a 1 ½-story gablefront form with a sidehall plan and rests on a granite foundation. Corner pilasters outline the façade. It appears that the frieze above the pilasters was either removed or covered over when the aluminum siding was installed. The slightly recessed entrance displays an entablature surround with two-part frieze. The four-panel door is flanked by long, single-pane sidelights. Windows on the house contain 1/1 replacement sash and are flanked by blinds. The east slope of the asphalt roof is punctuated by three shed dormers with a continuous shed dormer spanning the west side. There is a concrete exterior chimney rising from the east side. Extending behind the house is a single-story wing with an enclosed porch on the west side.
Deeds indicate that in 1895 Allen Pease, administrator of the estate of C.W. Pease, sold this lot (#1) extending back to the hotel grounds to Mrs. Julia Dudley. The property included "the Day House recently placed thereon". The original location of the house is not known at this time. In 1912 the property was acquired by Mrs. Dudley's brother, Samuel E. Pingree, who sold it four years later. Joseph Roberts purchased the property in 1916 and the Roberts family continued to own it until 1954.
44. Smith House, 11 Summer Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
Located at the northeast corner of Summer Street and Hillridge Road this late 19th century house displays a 1 ½-story gablefront with a lateral ell extending west, both of which rest on brick foundations and are sheathed in vinyl siding. Framed by projecting eaves, the façade is fronted by a glassed in porch lit by continuous modern 1/1 windows. Sheltered by the porch is a sidehall entrance. A similar porch spans the broad façade of the adjacent ell. Other windows on the structure contain 1/1 sash and include a shed wall dormer on the west slope of the main block roof. Two modern chimneys rise from the ridge of the main house roof with a corbel cap brick chimney on the ridge of the ell.
44A. Garage, c.1970. Noncontributing building [due toage].
Behind the main house and accessed from Hillridge Road is a two car, gablefront garage constructed of T111 siding.
According to deed research this property was part of the house lots set out by C.W. Pease in 1889. On an 1898 plan of the subdivision, the label for the lot reads "Pease (Amidon)" although the significance of this name is not known. The property, known as lot no. 10, was sold by Mary C. Pease to Carrie Smith in 1908 for $1850. It was subsequently sold to John and Laura Aher in 1920. The Aher family continued to own the property until 1954.
45. LaPoint House, 9 Summer Street, c.1948. Contributing building.
The LaPoint House is a 1 ½-story gablefront structure which rests on a concrete block foundation. A glazed sunporch spans the façade and an exterior brick chimney rises from the west elevation. The house is sheathed in aluminum siding and capped by an asphalt roof. Fenestration on the building includes 1/1 and 6/1 sash.
45A. Garage, c.1969. Noncontributing building [due to age].
An asphalt driveway extends along the west side of the house, terminating in this single-car, gablefront garage. Like the main house, it rests on a concrete block foundation and is sheathed with aluminum siding.
It appears that this lot (no. 9 on C.W. Pease's 1889 subdivision) remained vacant until the 20th century. The lot was sold by Laura Aher, who also owned the property to the west, to Louis LaPoint in 1948, who sold it to A. Alton Potter in 1955.
46. Pease House, 8 Summer Street, c.1890. Contributing building.
Resting on a brick foundation, 8 Summer Street is a 1 ½-story, gablefront building with a sidehall plan. The building is clad in aluminum siding and displays a single brick chimney on the ride of asphalt roof. The glass and horizontally-paneled front door is sheltered by a flat door hood supported by two decorative closed brackets. Windows on the structure consist of 1/1 replacement sash. Extending to the east is a single-story lateral ell fronted by a screened porch supported by turned posts with turned spindles and an airspace enclosed by jigsawn members.
46A. Garage, c. 1920. Contributing building.
To the west of the house is this early 20th century garage structure, constructed of novelty siding and capped by a hip roof. There are two sets of double doors on the garage façade. Each leaf displays 4 x 2 glass panes over four vertical panels. Sanborn Insurance maps indicate that the garage was constructed between 1917 and 1925.
Deed research indicates that this property, lot 2 of the Summer Street extension laid out by C.W. Pease, was owned by Orren Pease in 1898. The 1906 Sanborn Insurance map shows a building on the site by that time. In 1909 Orren Pease sold the property to Horace Pease. In 1925 it was acquired by Melvin and Nellie Reynolds. It was sold by M.C. Reynolds' estate in 1942.
47. House, 6 Summer Street, c.1920. Noncontributing building [due to alteration].
Originally a stable building on the Cone property and later converted to a dwelling, this 1 ½-story, side-gable structure displays a 3 x 2-bay massing. The building is clad in asbestos siding and centered on the asphalt roof is a square ventilator with pyramidal roof. The eaves of the roof overhang slightly and the end in returns on the gable ends. The center entrance contains a modern wood door and is sheltered by a low gable door hood. Windows on the structure contain 1/1 sash, which are paired on the façade. Unusual decorative shutters frame the window openings. An exterior concrete block chimney is located on the east side and a small porch projects from the rear.
47A. Garage, c.1950. Noncontributing building [due to age].
To the west of the house and set close to the road is this two-car, gablefront garage. The building rests on a concrete foundation and is sheathed in asbestos siding.
The exact date of construction of this house is not clear. The house stands on lot 4 of C.W. Pease's subdivision. Inspection of Sanborn Insurance Maps suggests that there was a carriage house/stable on this site by 1906. The parcel was sold by Horace C. Pease to Charles M. Cone in 1920. Based on comparison of Sanborn maps, the carriage house was converted to use as a dwelling sometime between 1917 and 1925. According to the Cone family history, a stable was moved about 1919 when Morris Cone's house was constructed from the former storehouse (Perry: 111). The building at 6 Summer Street was sold by Morris Cone to Donald Adams in 1953. Later owners included Raymond Adams, Jr., Alfred Durkee, Jr., and Mitchell W. Leonard, Sr.
48. Watson House, 5 Summer Street, c.1909. Contributing building.
This 2 ½-story, clapboarded structure rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt-shingled roof. The three-bay wide gablefront is framed by plain cornerboards which gave rise to a raking which is rounded at the tops of the cornerboards and at the gable peak, sheltered by projecting eaves. The sidehall entry displays a wood-paneled door with two upper glazed rectangular panes and horizontal panels below. Windows on the structure contain 2/2 sash with lipped lintels. The two-bay, single-story porch spanning the façade was recently reconstructed with chamfered posts and plain spindles. Extending to the west of the main block is a 1 ½-story lateral ell on a brick foundation, displaying a high kneewall over the first floor windows.
48A. Garage, c. 1990. Noncontributing building [due to age].
To the west of the house is a vinyl-sided, two-story, gambrel-roofed garage/outbuilding with two door openings on the broad side, 1/1 windows and shed dormers.
This property is lot 8 of C.W. Pease's subdivision. The 1906 Sanborn Map of the village already shows a building on the site by that year. In 1909 Mary C. Pease sold the property to Horace Pease, who sold it the same year to Alfred E. and Mary Maud Watson. The Watsons probably built the present house shortly thereafter. It was acquired by Fred and Mary Dickerman in 1916 who continued to own it until 1926 when it was sold to Melvin Reynolds.
49. Cone Servant's House, 3 Summer Street, c.1928. Contributing building.
Set into the hillside and fronted by tall concrete steps, this 1 ½-story, wood-shingled structure rests on a concrete foundation with a single-car garage underneath, marked by a small shed roof. Windows on the structure include a mix of paired and single 6/6 sash. Projecting from the façade is an offcenter porch consisting of multi-glass windows resting on a shingled wall. A single brick chimney rises from the ridge of the asphalt roof.
Sanborn maps suggest the construction of the house postdates 1925. The parcel on which this house stands was subdivided from the southwest corner of the White-Lyman Property at 12 Mapleside Terrace (#53) in 1928. The land was sold by Richard and Mary Cody to Morris Cone and Stephen Perry in 1928 and they continued to own it until 1945. According to local residents, this building housed the Cone family's servants.
50. Davis-Kimball Cottage, 1 Mapleside Terrace, c.1910. Contributing building.
Built on a sloping site at the northwest corner of School Street and Mapleside Terrace, this simple side-gabled, wood-shingled bungalow rests on a reconstructed modern concrete block foundation. Elements of the bungalow style include the exposed rafters on the broad façade on front shed dormer. The center entrance is fronted by wooden steps. To each side of the entrance is a large single pane window capped by a leaded transom of a geometric design and flanked by small shutters.
50A. Barn, c.1980. Noncontributing building [due to age].
Behind the house is a free-standing wood-shingled barn of recent construction.
This bungalow was constructed between 1908, when the property was acquired by Fred L. Davis, and 1917, when it is shown on the Sanborn map. The 1918 conveyance from Fred L. Davis to Edward and Susie Kimball describes the property as a "small lot with cottage", part of Davis' larger home premises. The property was acquired by Catherine Riley in 1955, from the estate of Susie Kimball.
51. French House, 3 Mapleside Terrace, c. 1905. Contributing building.
With its hilltop site overlooking Hartford Village, the French House is a 2 ½-story, Foursquare house sheathed in vinyl siding and resting on a brick and concrete block foundation. The hip roof and front hip dormer are both sheathed in asphalt shingles and display projecting eaves. Fronting the house is a single-story porch supported by turned posts with jigsawn brackets and plain stick balusters. The offcenter front door contains a glass-and-panel door. Windows on the structure include individual and paired 1/1 sash. Extending behind the house is a single-story addition. There is a modern deck to the east.
51A. Garage, c.1970. Noncontributing building [due to age].
Extending along the west side of the house is a paved driveway which terminates in a gambrel-roofed, two-car garage, resting on a concrete foundation.
According to a description provided in a deed from Lucy Maria Boyd French, widow of John H. French, to Daniel Burnett in 1914, this house was built by John H. French, who died in 1911. The fact that the French family acquired the land in 1904 gives the house a construction date between 1904 and 1911. The local newspaper mentions that "repairs" were made to the house in 1923 (Landmark 4/19/1923). The property was sold by the Burnetts to Fred L. and Jessie Davis in 1929. After Fred's death in 1946 and Jessie's in 1948 the property passed to her stepchildren Howard Davis and Marion Pettit, who sold it soon thereafter to Stanley and Margaret Ducharme.
52. House, 11 Mapleside Terrace, c.1900. Contributing building.
This 1 ½-story, side-gable structure is sheathed in vinyl siding and capped by an asphalt-shingled gable roof. Projecting from the center of the three-bay façade is a wide, single-bay pedimented porch supported by plain posts resting on a low, sided wall. The entrance contains a glass-and-paneled door. Windows on the structure contain 6/6 sash and include a gable dormer containing a 12/2 window centered above the entrance. Extending behind the main house is a single-story ell, fronted by a porch with turned posts.
52A. Garage, c.1910. Contributing building.
To the northeast of the main house is a small garage fronting onto Campbell Street. The clapboarded building rests on a concrete foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof. Fenestration includes a 2/2 window, a modern overhead garage door and a six-vertical panel door on the gablefront.
This house appears to be the small tenement north of the White House (#53) which was subdivided by Nelson White to Georgianna Sanborn (see discussion under #53).
53. White-Lyman House, 12 Mapleside Terrace, 1888. Contributing building.
Constructed in 1888, the Nelson White House is a 2 ½-story, cross gable structure clad in vinyl siding, resting on a brick foundation with an asphalt-shingled roof. The gablefront measures two bays wide and displays projecting eaves above plain cornerboards. Wrapping around the east and north elevations is a single-story porch supported by turned posts. The southern end of the porch has been enclosed. Fenestration includes original 2/2 sash, replacement 1/1 windows, Queen Anne sash with colored glass and 6/6 on the end. There is a glass-and-horizontal panel door on the end which displays brick veneer.
53A. Garage, c.1980. Nonontributing building [due to age].
Located on the site of an earlier barn east of the main house, this 1 ½-story, gablefront garage/barn displays a single, double-wide garage door on its north façade and a loft door above. It rests on a concrete foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof.
This house stands on the site of the former Moore homestead which was sold by Marcella Moore to Nelson W. White in 1870 for $2,000. The present house was apparently constructed in 1888. According to an article appearing in the Landmark in February 1888, N.W. White was to build a new house in the spring on the site of his present residence. A 1906 deed notes that the property at that time included a dwelling, barn and tenement house. The "small tenement and lot north of the premises" were subsequently conveyed to Georgianna Sanborn (see #52). The White property was sold by Lydia White to Arthur and Marie Mead Lyman in 1926.
54. Stowe House, 15 Mapleside Terrace, 1930. Contributing building.
The Stowe House is a 1 ½-story, gablefronted structure, fronted by an enclosed glassed porch. It rests on a rusticated, concrete block foundation. Constructed in 1930, the house is sheathed in vinyl siding and its gable roof is covered in standing seam metal with a shed dormer on the east side. Windows on the structure consist of 1/1 replacement sash.
Offset to the northeast is a 1 ½-story wing of similar height with a garage door and 2/2 window punctuating the front.
54A. Garage, 1930. Contributing building.
Located to the southeast of the main house is a single-story garage with two double doored openings on its south-facing gable front. Each of the leaves displays 4 x 2 panes over vertical panels. There is a 2/2 window centered above. The structure is sheathed in novelty siding and rests on a concrete foundation. It is capped by an asphalt roof.
This property was sold by Arthur Lyman to Guy and Ernestine Stowe in 1930. According to the deed this included "the new house situated on the lot on a slight rise north of our home premises on the terrace, and being a tract of land set apart from our home premises for the purpose of erecting thereon said new dwelling house and garage and establishing a lot around the same".
55. House, 1 Christian Street, c.1860. Contributing building.
Located at the junction of School and Christian Streets is this 1 ½-story, gablefront house clad in aluminum siding and resting on a brick foundation. Cornice returns decorate the gablefront; any cornerboards have been obscured by siding. A single-story porch is located at the southwest corner of the house, extending from the entrance to the southern elevation. A gable marks the sidehall entrance. Windows contain 1/1 replacement sash. Projecting from the south side is a two-story, shed-roofed addition. The two rear wings culminate in a two-story section with a gable door hood and modern fenestration.
55A. Garage, c.1980. Noncontributing building [due to age].
To the south of the house is a free-standing garage with two modern garage doors and a lot opening on its gablefront. It appears that this house is that owned by J. Huntoon on the 1869 Beers Map. In the late 19th century it was owned and occupied by Katherine Hazen, who bequeathed it to her brother, Hugh Collins.
56. Hartford Village Grammar School, 23 School Street, 1906. Contributing building.
Set on a hill overlooking Hartford Village, the former Hartford Grammar School is a two-story brick building capped by a hipped, metal roof with decorative knobs and two large brick chimneys rising from the ridge. The building rests on a granite foundation with a beveled granite water table running around the building. Centered on the façade is a two-story projection a single bay wide. The entrance porch displays an arched entry which has been filled in, punctuated by a single window opening. Flanking the entry are pilasters with stone caps and bases, supporting a gull entablature. To each side of the entrance vestibule there is a single window while four window openings punctuate the second story above the entrance. Original windows on the structure have been replaced by 1/1 metal replacement windows with orange panel transoms. Rough granite sills and flat arch brick lintels frame the windows. Extending behind the main block is a single-story, c.1950 addition capped by a shed roof with glass block openings on the south face above the covered walkway.
The first school to occupy this location was the Hartford Academy, incorporated in 1839 but in existence only a short time due to a lack of students. The Academy Building was purchased for a school house by District No. 17 in 1848. The present building was constructed in 1906-7 after a special town meeting held on April 14, 1906 appropriated $10,000 to build a new brick schoolhouse. Under construction at the same time was a new high school building at White River Junction.
The two school buildings were put out to bid together. According to the 1907 town report, eight sets of architectural plans were submitted by competing firms. Ultimately the committee accepted the plans of Messrs. Hurd and Grove of Boston, Massachusetts. [No addition information has been found concerning the firm]. R. Clipston Sturgis, Chairman of the Schoolhouse Committee in Boston, also was consulted for input on the plans. Horace H. Tozier of Lynn, Massachusetts was awarded the construction contract. The former Hartford schoolhouse was sold at public auction for $135. The new Hartford Grammar School was opened in the fall of 1908. It consisted of four rooms, two stories above a high basement, although only three rooms were used initially. A later 1950s addition includes two classrooms, a kitchen and a multi-purpose room. The children of the Village attended the school until July 1993, when the new Dothan Brook School opened in Wilder. The school building is presently utilized by the Headstart Program.
57. Pingree House, 18 School Street, c.1896. Contributing building.
Displaying elements of both the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles, 18 School Street is a 2 ½-story, vinyl-sided structure which rests on a brick foundation. Contributing to the structure's asymmetrical profile are wood-shingled gable pents and a hip dormer located above a three-sided bay window and an exterior brick chimney. Wrapping around the façade and south elevation is a single-story porch supported by plain posts with jigsawn brackets and plain spindles. The offcenter front door is a recent replacement. Fenestration on the structure includes a mixture of 6/6 and 6/1 sash of various sizes including single units and sets of three. Centered on the second floor of the south elevation is a Palladian window. The single-story addition projecting from the south side rests on a concrete foundation and is of recent construction.
57A. Garage, 18 School Street, c.1910. Contributing building.
Offset to the southwest is a single-story, wood-shingles, gablefront outbuilding with a concrete chimney. The original double doors have been replaced by plywood.
The land on which this house stands was acquired by Neil Huntoon from Henry Brodon in 1853. The Huntoon family continued to occupy the property until 1896 when George Huntoon sold it to Lydia Pingree, wife of Samuel E. Pingree. Stylistic evidence suggests that the Pingrees removed the earlier house and replaced it with this Queen Anne dwelling. The property remained in the Pingree family for a number of years. It was sold by Morris Cone to Donald and Teresa McMahon in 1946.
58. Clarke House, 15 School Street, 1828. Contributing building.
The Erastus Clarke House is a 2 ½-story, clapboarded structure with a broad gablefront measuring three bays across and a sidehall plan. The building rests on a mortared stone foundation and is capped by an asphalt-shingled roof. Simple cornerboards outline the structure, capped by cornice returns and projecting eaves. Fronting the façade is a late 19th century, single-story porch supported by posts capped by arched brackets and spanned by jigsawn balusters. A note in The Landmark indicates that George Tarbell added a piazza in 1884. Windows on the structure are predominantly 2/2 sash, framed by blinds. A single surviving 12/12 window is located in the attic.
Extending behind the main block is a two-story wing, terminating in a 20th century, single-story wing with exposed rafters and a concrete foundation.
58A. House, c.1980. Noncontributing building [due to age].
To the rear of the main house is a single-story, vinyl-sided residence constructed c1980 on a concrete foundation.
The main house on this property was constructed by Erastus Clarke, a carpenter, for his own use in 1828. Clarke sold the property to Henry Tarbell and his daughter, Mary Louise in 1842. The house remained in the Tarbell family until 1890. Later owners included Thomas and Helen West and Evelyn Ingalls. The 1869 Beers Map indicates that this property was owned by H Clark in that year although this appears to contradict the deed research.
59. Gov. Samuel E. Pingree House, 13 School Street, c.1867. Contributing building.
The Pingree House is a 2 ½-story, gablefront structure with a sidehall plan. The house rests on a granite foundation and is notable for the retention of its clapboard siding. The gablefront measures three bays wide although the bays are not of equal spacing. Marking the entrance is a Colonial Revival style, wide, flat-roof entrance porch with a two-part frieze supported by fluted columns, echoed by pilasters and panels adjacent to the door with arched upper panels. A fret molding decorates the porch, similar to that seen on the Kneeland-Cone House (#21). A photograph of the property dated about 1910 indicates that at that time the façade was embellished by a two-story, balustraded porch. The 1/1 windows are capped by slightly peaked lintels. Simple cornerboards give rise to a simple frieze under projecting eaves. A two-story projection on a concrete foundation emerges from the north side and a wing extends behind the house. According to the local newspaper, Pingree made a rear addition in 1888 (Landmark, 6/16/1888). The porch on the south side displays a geometric railing. There is a single-story, three-sided bay window on the south side. Deeds indicate that in 1867 George P. Bugbee, owner of the adjacent property, conveyed this lot to Samuel E. Pingree. It appears that this house was constructed soon thereafter; the 1869 Beers Map indicates that it was owned by S.M. Pingree. A 1922 deed for the property indicates that in that year it was owned by Lydia and William S. Pingree and consisted of 1 ½ acres including a dwelling house, barn, carriage and ice house and cottage tenement. A brief mention in the Landmark indicates that the local architect L.S. Newton was "working on" this house in 1923 (Landmark, 4/26/1923). The work probably included a new front porch. The property remained in the Pingree family until 1966.
Samuel Everett Pingree (1832-1922) was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire in 1832 and located in Hartford in 1859. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1857 and began practicing law in Hartford in 1860 in partnership with his brother, Stephen M. Pingree. After serving in the Civil War, Pingree returned to his legal practice in Hartford. For many years his office was located in the former Lyman Office (#20A). Pingree served as town clerk of the town for fifty years beginning in 1859. In 1882 Pingree was elected lieutenant governor and from 1884-1886 he served as governor of the state. From 1886 to 1894 he was chairman of the state railway commission.
60. Pingree Cottage Tenement House, 11 School Street, after 1869. Contributing building.
Located to the southeast of the Pingree House (#59) and set back from the sidewalk, this 2 ½-story, clapboarded structure displays a narrow, two-bay wide gablefront. The roof is sheathed in asphalt shingles and the foundation is granite. A single-story porch spans the façade, supported by pierced porch posts. The offcenter entrance has a glass-and-panel door. Simple cornerboards outline the structure, giving rise to projecting eaves and a plain frieze. Windows are predominantly 1/1 sash with lipped lintels; there are also several 6/6 windows. A single-story shed spans the rear elevation.
60A. Garage, c.1910. Contributing building.
Behind the house is a single-story, clapboarded garage with an asphalt roof and sliding door.
This structure appears to be the cottage tenement mentioned in deeds for the adjacent Pingree House (#59). According to the Beers Map, it was built after 1869. The property remained in the Pingree family until 1966.
61. Pease House, 10 School Street, 1886. Contributing building.
The house at 10 School Street is a large 2 ½-story, gablefront structure sheathed in asbestos siding above a granite foundation and capped by an asphalt-shingled roof. The building displays projecting eaves with a curved raking. Spanning the façade is a three-bay, single-story entrance porch supported by chamfered posts with continuous turned spindles. Fronted by granite steps, the double-doors have upper glass and display an entablature surround with chamfered pilasters. Original windows on the structure have been replaced with metal replacement sash but retain their lipped lintels. A 2 ½-story gable wall dormer rises from the south elevation, fronted by a two-story, three-sided bay window with a single-story porch to the west, sheltering three entrances which have two upper glazed panels. A 2 ½-story projecting cross gable interrupts the north elevation. Offset to the southeast is a two-story ell, formerly a barn but now converted to apartments. Three gable dormers penetrate the front roof slope and there is a central, single-bay entrance porch containing a c.1920 glass door with sidelights. The rear half of the ell rests on concrete and a rear porch has been added.
61A. Barn, c.1887. Contributing building.
To the south is a gablefront, building with a gable doorhood on the north elevation. It is sheathed in a combination of T111 siding and wood clapboards and rests on a concrete foundation. The former barn was been converted to residential use.
The construction of this house postdates the 1869 Beers map. In June of 1886 the local newspaper reported that C.W. Pease was preparing to move into his new house (Landmark, 6/12/1886). In 1888 Pease fenced off his new yard behind his house for elk. After fire destroyed Pease's Hotel in 1889, Charles Pease used his home on School Street as a hotel until the new one was built. In 1898 Summer Street was laid out across Pease's land. After Pease's death, the house was acquired by May Pease who sold it in 1894 to Fred and Nellie Chaffee for $5000. Two years later it was acquired by Olive (Watson) Goss and her husband, Rollin. The Watson family continued to own the property until 1936.
62. House, 9 School Street, c.1840. Contributing building.
A good example of the Greek Revival style, this 1 ½-story, clapboarded house displays a gablefront with sidehall plan and entablatured entrance containing a four-panel door flanked by sidelights. The building rests on a granite foundation and is capped by an asphalt roof with projecting eaves. Simple cornerboards give rise to cornice returns and there is a two part frieze on the side elevations. Windows contain 1/1 replacement sash with low peaked lintels. A historic photograph in the St. Croix town history indicates that at one time the façade was spanned by a single-story porch supported by chamfered posts. The triangular vent in the attic replaces an original, slightly lower triangular attic opening. An exterior concrete block chimney is located on the south side.
Extending behind the main house is a single-story wing with modern fenestration and a porch supported by turned posts. The wing ends with a board-and-batten garage on a concrete foundation with two doors opening on the south side.
The first owner of record of this lot was William Arnold in 1805. Subsequent owners included Ziba Hall and Horace Wells. According to the town history, this property is notable as the birthplace of Dr. Horace Wells (1815-1848), discoverer of anesthesia. Unfortunately, the house's Greek Revival style detailing would suggest a construction date which postdated Well's birth, at least for the main block of the house. In addition, Wells only lived in Hartford Village three years; most of his public career in dentistry took place in Hartford, Connecticut.
In addition to the house the property also included a tannery on the brook. The tannery and probably the house were reportedly built of old growth pine timber cut on the meadow back of the main street of the village (Old and New 1901: 58). Later owners of the property included Joseph Emerson, Ira Wood, Ora Wood and Luther Pease. George Bugbee is shown as the owner on the 1869 map. The property was sold by George Bugbee to Leonard Trumbull in 1908 and was the homestead of Mary Pease Trumbull and her husband for many years.
63. Bubgee House, 7 School Street, c.1850. Contributing building.
This 1 ½-story, gablefront structure rests on a granite foundation and displays a sidehall plan. The offcenter entrance contains a turn-of-the-century, glass-and-panel door. The house is sheathed in vinyl siding and is fronted by a single-story porch supported by chamfered posts resting on a low wall. Windows contain a mix of 6/6, 2/2 and 6/1 sash; any lintels which once existed have been covered by or removed for the siding. A shed wall dormer breaks through the north slope of the asphalt-shingled roof. A carport is located to the south of the house. A shed addition spans the rear. There is a small clapboarded shed to the rear of the house.
This house was built by Jonathan Bugbee, 1st, for his son, Jonathan Bugbee, 2d (Old and New 1901: 57). In 1873 the property was sold by Jonathan Bugbee, a blacksmith and carriage maker, to Zerah Clark. Clark operated a factory making lumber, chair stock, fork and hoe handles in the village. In 1916 the house was sold by Effie Batchellor to Fred Dickerman, who sold it to Gertrude Gillette the same year. In 1919, the property was sold to Clarence and Eva Butler. In 1922 the property was acquired by Edwin and Emma Cushing who owned the property until 1945.
64. Stevens Tenement House, 5 School Street, 1923. Contributing building.
The two-family house at 5 School Street is a 2 ½-story, gablefront structure resting on a brick foundation. The building is now covered with vinyl siding although the survival of wood shingles on the two-story, projecting and glassed-in front porch suggests the whole house may have originally been shingled. Windows on the structure include individual and paired 6/6 sash as well as smaller windows centered on the north elevation. The two-story wing behind has a rear porch with turned posts. The shingle-story addition to the north rests on a concrete foundation.
According to deeds, this "two-tenement house" was built by Roland Stevens who purchased the property from Gertrude M. Gillette in 1922. According to an article appearing in the Landmark in March 1923, the Stevens family was about to move into the second floor apartment. A local attorney, Stevens, was married to the former Annie Morris, the younger daughter of mill owner Ephraim Morris. The property was sold by Roland Stevens to Kennon Lyons in 1956.
64A. Garage, c.1925. Contributing building.
To the east of the main house is a gablefront, two-car garage constructed of novelty siding and resting on a concrete foundation. Windows on the structure include 6/6 sash.
65. Gillette House, 1-3 School Street, c.1909. Contributing building.
This 2 ½-story, gablefront structure displays various characteristics of the Queen Anne style. Contrasting with the predominantly clapboarded exterior is the use of wood shingles in the front gable and the rusticated concrete block foundation. Breaking the uniformity of the façade is a recessed two story, three-sided bay window and a deep front porch supported by Roman Doric columns. The combination hip-gable roof is sheathed in slate and punctuated by a single brick chimney. Windows on the structure include individual and paired 1/1 sash, flanked by blinds. A two-story wing extends behind. On the south side there is a two-story, three-sided bay window topped by a shingled gable and a projecting, single-story porch. The house is set back from the corner with a concrete retaining wall.
65A. Garage, c.1920. Contributing building.
To the east of the main house, on the south side of Elmwood Court, is a small, single-car garage. The clapboarded building features double doors on its gablefront and 6/6 sash on the side elevations.
65B. Garage, c.1970. Noncontributing building [due to age].
Located on the north side of Elmwood Court is this two-car garage constructed of wood clapboards with a gable of T111 siding.
In 1909 this property was conveyed by Ellen and Jonathan Bugbee to Gertrude Gillette, who conveyed it to Margaret Chittenden in 1939. Sanborn Insurance Maps indicate that the house was in place in its present form by 1917. It is not known whether the present house was constructed by the Bugbees or Gillette although the use of concrete block for the foundation suggests that the house may have been built by Gillette shortly after she purchased the property in 1909.
66. House, 6 Elmwood Court, by 1917. Contributing building.
The house at 6 Elmwood Court is a 1 ½-story, gablefront structure with a sidehall plan. The building rests on a brick foundation and is capped by an asphalt-shingled roof with a brick, ridge chimney. The exterior is sheathed in vinyl siding and an exterior concrete block chimney rises from the west elevation. Projecting from the entrance is a gable door hood supported by plain posts. Windows on the structure contain 1/1 sash with storm windows. A single-story, rectangular bay window projects from the south side and a flat-roofed, enclosed porch spans the rear elevation.
66A. Garage, between 1917 and 1925. Contributing building.
To the west of the main house is this single-story, clapboarded garage, which according to Sanborn Insurance Maps, was constructed between 1917 and 1925. The building is capped by an asphalt roof with a small brick chimney rising near the rear of the ridge. Simple cornerboards give rise to a plain frieze under projecting eaves. On the gablefront there is a five paneled door and a single garage bay, with a loft opening centered in the attic above. Windows on the side elevations contain 2/2 sash.
Elmwood Terrace was originally known by a variety of other names including Bugbee or Gillette Terrace. Gertrude Gillette purchased the adjacent 5 School Street (#64) in 1916 and 1-3 School Street (#65) in 1909 and apparently laid out what is now Elmwood Court soon thereafter. Three of the buildings on the street, 6, 8, and 10 Elmwood Court, are all built according to the same plan.
The 1917 Sanborn Insurance Map indicates that a structure was already on the site in that year. The adjacent garage is not on the 1917 map but had been constructed by the time of the 1925 map.
67. Welch House, 8 Elmwood Court, c.1917. Contributing building.
The house at 8 Elmwood Court is a 1 ½-story, gablefront structure built according to the same plan as its neighbors 6 & 10 Elmwood Court. The building rests on a brick foundation. The walls are sheathed in vinyl siding and asphalt shingles cover the roof. Rising from concrete steps, the sidehall entrance is fronted by a gabled doorhood resting on plain posts. Fenestration includes 1/1 windows and a bay window.
67A. Garage, 8 Elmwood Court, c.1980. Noncontributing building [due to age].
This property was sold by Mrs. Gertrude M. Gillette to Edward and Margaret Welsh in 1919. Gillette subdivided the land into four lots which were initially known as Bugbee or Gillette Terrace. Later occupants included George Braley and Edwin and Margaret Culver.
68. Braley House, 10 Elmwood Court, c.1917. Noncontributing building [due to alteration].
Of the three gablefront houses on Elmwood Court, this is the most altered. The exterior of the building is sheathed in a combination of clapboards and wood shingles and is capped by an asphalt roof. An exterior brick chimney rises from the south elevation with an additional brick chimney near the ridge. The first floor of the façade is sheltered by a narrow pent overhang and the two individual windows adjacent to the sidehall entry have been replaced by a large picture window. The entrance contains a glass and paneled door with an exterior storm door. Upstairs the fenestration has been completely altered and consists of an 8/8 window and a small horizontal window while a 1/1 window has been inserted in the attic. A plain frieze is located under the projecting eaves.
68A. Garage, c. 1917. Noncontributing building [due to age].
To the south of the house is a small, gablefront garage sheathed in wood shingles.
This property, including the dwelling, was sold by Gertrude Gillette to Aurele LaLiberte in 1919 for $1500. The property was subsequently sold to Harry Braley in 1920 who continued to own it until 1971. A short notice in the local newspaper in 1923 indicated that Harry Braley intended to add a wide porch to his house, which has since been removed (Landmark, 5/17/1923).
69. House, 12 Elmwood Court, c.1918. Noncontributing building [due to alteration].
Contrasting with its gablefront neighbors, 12 Elmwood Court is a 1 ½-story, Cape style dwelling which has seen many alterations over the years. The building is sheathed in a combination of clapboards and asbestos siding and is capped by a sheet metal roof. Projecting form the center entrance is a gabled porch supported by plain posts. Partial sidelights flank the entry. To each side of the entrance is a tripartite window consisting of a central plate glass window flanked on each side by a 4/4 window. Remained windows include 6/6 sash in the attic. Offset to the southwest is a single-story structure with a single garage door on its gablefront.
This property, land and building, was sold by Gertrude Gillette to George and Martha Gilmore in 1920. Subsequent owners of short duration included Frank and Bertha Lackey, Hannah Case, Harold and Beatrice Snelling, Merle and Lola Fletcher and Edward Pierce. The property was owned by Forest Braley from 1943 until 1976.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
The Hartford Village Historic District is significant under National Register Criteria A & C as a largely intact and unified Vermont mill village. Under the area of Architecture, structures in the district comprise a cross section of architectural styles from the early 19th to the early 20th century, and in general possess a high level of integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association. The District is also significant under Criterion A, Community Planning and Development, for its associations with the development of the village center which grew in proximity to the industries along the White River. Despite the range of building dates and stylistic detailing present, taken together, the structures of Hartford Village form a cohesive unit, united by their history and their compact setting in the scenic valley formed by the White River. Building activity in the twentieth century has not negatively impacted the village. The period of significance for the district terminates at 1947, the 50-year cut-off.
With the building of the dam in 1797 and the sawmill, gristmill and oilmill on the north side of the river immediately after, the settlement of what is now Hartford Village began. A petition to lay out a highway on the north side of the White River was recorded in 1790 and by 1795 there was already a toll bridge across the White River. Records indicate that there was only one house standing on Main Street in 1800, a house on the site of the present Morris House (#6), which was occupied by 1795. In 1800 the entire plateau of the village and the hill behind it belonged to Roger Wright. Roger Wright acquired two fifty-acre lots, comprising what is now the lower half of the village, from his father, Benjamin Wright, Jr. in 1795. In 1801 Wright began to partition the land into mostly one acre lots, selling a series of lots along Main Street and School Street between 1801 and 1805. (Old and New 1901: 44-46). The first hotel in the village was built in 1801 by Asa Richardson. The first post office in town was established here in 1806 and the Town Clerk established his headquarters in the village in 1840; the factory was destroyed by fire in 1835. Preliminary meetings plan the erection of a meetinghouse were held in 1827 with the Second Congregational Church completed in 1828. The private Hartford Academy was incorporated in 1839 although by 1848 the ownership of the building had passed to the local school district.
The decade of the 1850s brought considerable industrial activity to the small village, known early on as White River Village. E.F. Lane established a tannery and sawmill at the village in 1851, which was later acquired by Z.B. Clark. In 1853, Sylvester Morris of Norwich, Vermont purchased the site of Elias Lyman's former factory on which he constructed a mill to grind plaster for fertilizer. Two years later he added machinery for the production of chair stock. Edward W. Morris bought the business from his father in 1857 and operated the chair factory in partnership with his brother Ephraim. By the 1880s the factory employed about forty persons, some of whom did caning in their homes. Over 12,000 dozen chairs were shipped each year, mostly to South America, Australia, or Africa. In 1853 French, Watson & Co.'s fork factory relocated to Hartford Village from Brookfield, Vermont, making manure forks, garden rakes, shovels, and spades. In 1854, the privately owned toll bridge across the White River was purchased by the town.
By the mid 19th century White River Village was an active and prosperous village center. Numerous industries are depicted on the 1869 Beers Map of the village. On the north bank of the river these include the grist mill, saw mill and box factory of Z.B. Clark, where chair stock and fork and hoe handles were produced. Among the industries on the south side of the river were the Morris Brothers' chair factory; French, Watson and Company's fork and farm implement factory and a sawmill. Other village establishments include a grain store, a blacksmith shop, a drug store, law office, doctor's office, Pease & Sons hotel, a carriage and paint shop, a harness shop and a hardware dealer.
The village's industrial activity entered a new phase of development in 1886 when the chair business established by Edward and Ephraim Morris was closed and a four-story woolen mill was built on the site. The two brothers, in partnership with a group which included Charles Cone, subsequently organized the Hartford Woolen Mill. In his 1889 town history, Tucker notes that at that time Hartford Village was the site of the Town Clerk's office, the Second Congregational Church, a public school, post office five stores, a hotel, a circulating library and approximately 500 residents. Another source writing in the 1880s estimated that there were 100 dwellings in the village by this time (Child: 124). In 1887, Summer Street was laid out, parallel to Main Street, on land which was owned by Charles W. Pease, proprietor of Pease's Hotel. At about the same time Back Street was renamed Pleasant Street.
A sketch of the Hartford village appearing in the County History in 1891 described the village as a manufacturing point of considerable importance. At this time, the village was serviced by two railroads, the Vermont Central and the Woodstock, although the latter was little used. In addition to the Hartford Woolen Company, manufacturers of woolen goods and satinets; many of the older factories operational including French, Watson & Co. and W.L. Bugbee's factories for agricultural implements; Isaac Gate's chair factory; the flour and grist mill of Moore and Madden; E. Johnson's furniture shop, J. Bugbee's carriage and sleigh factory and the French, Watson & Co. saw mill.
Fueled by industrial wealth, Hartford village was both prosperous and progressive at the turn-of-the-century. Several of the village's most prominent residents and mill owners erected new dwellings in the late 19th century, testifying to the confidence and pride they had in the hamlet. H.C. Pease constructed his house, "Sunnyacre" (#11) in 1884; Ephraim Morris' house (#9) dates to 1894. Charles Cone made considerable alterations to his residence on Main Street (#21) in 1897. The original Pease Hotel was destroyed by fire in 1889. A new Pease Hotel including a public room known as Pease Hall, was completed in 1893. The hotel was later known as the White River Tavern.
The Hartford Library (#10) was given to the town by Ephraim Morris in 1893. The quality of life in the village was further embellished by the activities of the Ladies' Reading Club and the Hartford Village Improvement Association, organized in 1884 under the leadership of the pastor of the church. In 1884 the Improvement Association built the concrete sidewalk on Main Street, followed by the planting of two hundred shade trees the following year. In 1899 the Association built the sidewalk on Summer Street. Other projects supervised by the Association include caring for sidewalks, planting and trimming trees, collecting refuse once a year, cutting weeds on public banks and corners and purchasing a snow plow for the village. The Hartford Cemetery Association was organized in 1905 by various Hartford village residents. The interior of the Second Congregational Church (#1) was renovated in 1902-3. A new school building, the Hartford Grammar School (#56), was erected on the site of the former Hartford Academy in 1908.
By the early 20th century White River Junction had become the dominant business center in the town of Hartford while Hartford village was increasingly a "community of homes" (Gateway 1904: 16). The number of industries operating in Hartford village had decreased by the turn of the century, due in large part to fire losses. Jonathan Bugbee's carriage and blacksmith shop and Zerah Clarke's box shop on the south side of Main Street were destroyed by fire in January 1886. The Bugbee Carriage Shop was subsequently rebuilt and the box shop site became the site for Isaac Gate's chair factory. Both Bugbee's second carriage shop and Gate's White River Chair Company factory were destroyed by fire in 1904. Industrial Vermont, published in 1914, lists the village's industries as a lumber and shingle mill, a grist mill and a satinet factory. The Hartford Woolen Company continued to have a major presence in the village well into the 20th century. After the deaths of Ephraim Morris in 1901 and Edward Morris in 1905, Ephraim's son-in-law, Charles Cone, assumed control of the mill. Upon Cone's death in 1935, his son, Morris, became president and general manager of the Hartford Woolen Company. Morris' son, John C. Cone, assumed operation of the mill in 1949.
The 20th century has brought its share of changes to the fabric of the village. The last portion of the village hotel, the Old Pease or Watson Hall, was destroyed by fire in 1941. Charles and Daniel Aher constructed their Aher Brothers Supermarket (#16) in Hartford Village in 1952. The building was later occupied by the Imperial Company, makers of stamp albums. The Hartford Woolen Mill closed in 1957, taking with it as many as 500 jobs. The fire station building on the south side of Main Street was demolished in 1961 after the fire district was consolidated with Fire District #1 in White River Junction. This building formerly housed the hardware store of L. Pease and Son. In the late 1970s, all but one of the houses on the south side of Main Street were taken down. The village school closed in 1993.
Among the earliest resources extant in the village is a small Cape Cod structure at 237 Main Street (#2), which was constructed in the early 19th century. The building retains its characteristic 5 x 2-bay massing and a small center brick chimney although all but one 12/8 window have been replaced by a later 2/2 sash. Two other Main Street commercial structures (#12 & #13) may date to the early 1800s although their integrity is impaired by later additions and alterations including new exterior sheathings. Many of the other buildings constructed within the village in the early 19th century were subsequently replaced by later structures.
The Wyllys Lyman House (#20) is an excellent example of the Federal style, erected by Elias Lyman for his son in 1828. The house, noteworthy for its early adoption of the sidehall plan, was constructed by the father of Charles Dana of Lebanon, New Hampshire. Typical of the Federal style influence are the semicircular relieving arches on the first floor openings, the splayed lintels, semicircular louvered fans and the divided fanlight over the entry. The house is further embellished by a variety of classically-derived details including bead moldings and modillions. The adjacent Office (#20A) is contemporary with the house and shares many of its stylistic details. Constructed the same year, the Second Congregational Church (#1) is an outstanding example of a Federal-style church. The pedimented main mass displays a double portal pavilion and two stage square tower. Fluted Ionic pilasters outline the structure and louvered fans with moldings adorned by diamonds crown the entrances. The Erastus Clarke House (#58) on School Street also dates to 1828 but lacks the stylistic ornament of the previous two structures. The 2 ½-story residence has a three-bay wide gablefront and a sidehall plan. Ornament is limited to simple cornice returns and a late 19th century entrance porch. A single original 12/12 window remains in the attic.
The Greek Revival style is represented within the district by a number of simple 1 ½-story, gablefont dwellings with sidehall plans. On the house at 9 School Street (#62) simple cornerboards supprt cornice returns with a two-part frieze on the side elevations. The sidehall entrance is entablatured and a distinctive triangular opening punctuates the gable. Constructed about 1850 and moved to its present site in 1895, the Day-Dudley House (#43) retains corner pilasters and a four-panel door flanked by sidelights and an entablature surround. The French House (#27) displays a recessed sidehall entrance with entablature surround. The former Congregational Church Parsonage (#8) has a pediment front and corner pilasters although the entrance porch and much of the fenestration is the result of late 19th century renovations. The Gov. Samuel Pingree House (#59) is a 2 ½-story gablefont building constructed about 1867 and displaying peaked window lintels. Another late Greek Revival structure is the Trescott House (#34), a 1 ½-story gablefront constructed about 1870. The Bugbee House (#63) is a simple gablefront building which retains its original 6/6 windows.
In some cases the Greek Revival style form was embellished by details from other styles. Dating to the 1860s, the Isaac Gates House (#4) is a 1 ½-story, gablefront house with a sidehall entrance capped by bracketed entablature bearing the imprint of the Italianate. The Pease House (#46) lacks any stylistic ornament other than the bracketed doorhood at the sidehall entrance. Another mode which found limited popularity during this period is the Gothic Revival, represented in its vernacular form by the Dutton House (#3). While the house exhibits a sidehall, sidelit entrance made popular by the Greek Revival, the steeply pitched gable wall dormer with decorative bargeboard raking and cutout porch posts are typical Gothic Revival features.
The Classic Cottage, a variation on the Cape Cod form, which is characterized by a higher kneewall above the first floor, continued to be popular into the late 19th century. A good example of the house form, the Fenno-Jeffery House (#30), dates to about 1860. Other examples of the form include Peck-Barrows House (#36) and the Ray-Chadbourne House (#38) The George Cone House (#7) is evidence that the 2 ½-story, side-gabled dwelling house form remained popular as late as the 1860s.
During the late 19th century there was considerable new construction in the village, fueled by the growth of local industries. The continued use and timelessness of the gablefront house with sidehall plan is evidenced in numerous village buildings and is the most common building form of the period. Two adjacent houses on Summer Street - The Davis-Chadbourne House (#40) and the Waterman-Champion House (#39) are mirror images of each other. The simple two-story structures with lateral ells lack any stylistic decoration. Typical 2 ½-story gablefront structures with lateral ells include the Watson House (#48) and the White-Lyman House (#53). A similar house, the C.W. Pease House (#61) displays a two-story, three-sided bay window and a single-story front porch. Constructed in 1892, the Pease & Fuller Tenement (#41) is unique in the district as an example of a multi-family tenement and for its late use of the 2 ½-story, side-gabled form.
The prosperity which local residents enjoyed in the late 19th century is manifested in several impressive buildings exhibiting features of the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles. "Sunnyacre" (#11) is a large Queen Ann-style house constructed in 1884 for prosperous businessman Horace Pease, possibly designed by architect Col. Ferdinand Davis of Lebanon. A good example of the style, the house displays an asymmetrical profile enlivened by gables, dormers, porches and a variety of windows, all of which was originally further enriched by a polychromatic paint scheme. Aluminum siding now obscures the original contrasting textures including clapboards and wood shingles. Louvered blinds have also been removed although the windows retain their Queen Anne-style sash. The adjacent Hartford Library (#10) was constructed in 1893 on land which Horace Pease donated. Although it lacks the Queen Anne's irregular massing, a corner tower accents the façade. In keeping with the Queen Anne style, the building utilizes a variety of materials including a brick first floor, wood clapboards, patterned wood shingles, terracotta panels and stained glass. The Library retains a very high level of integrity with only minor interior modifications and was individually listed on the National Register in 1994. To the west of the library stands the elaborate Ephraim Morris House (#9), constructed in 1894 for the co-owner of the Hartford Woolen Company who also contributed $10,000 for the construction and endowment of the library. Indicative of a Queen Anne style influence, the façade is dominated by a large corner tower although most other decorative features reflect an early interest in the Colonial Revival in which the "Colonial" details are freely interpreted and mixed. These include a variety of classically-inspired moldings, lunettes, swags, fluted pilasters and pedimented dormers. The Morris-Chadbourne House (#6) was constructed by Ephraim's brother, Edward, at about the same time. The Queen Anne style structure consists of a two-story, cross gable with a corner, conical-capped, tower and wrap-around porches. Undoubtedly much of the house's decorative detailing has been obscured by aluminum siding. The Pingree House (#57) also displays elements of both the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles, including a wood-shingled front gable, a three-sided bay window and a wrap-around porch. Despite its rectangular plan, the Gillette House (#65) also reflects a late Queen Anne influence.
Within the district there are several unique examples of Colonial Revival architecture. The long and varied history of the Kneeland-Cone House (#21) blurs the distinction between Colonial and Colonial Revival features. This house was originally constructed in 1804, exhibiting a 2 ½-story, side gabled form. After a fire in 1889 the house was rebuilt, incorporating a number of Colonial Revival features. It is not clear whether the Georgian style entrance was original to the structure or added at this time. In 1897 the house was altered and expanded in the Georgian Revival style for Charles Cone, co-owner of the Hartford Woolen Company, according to plans by local Hartford architect, Louis Sheldon Newton (1871-1953). The 1897 renovations included raising the roof a full story, changing the pedimented gable to a gambrel roof and adding pedimented dormers. The round-arch window was already in place over the entrance but Newton repeated the lunette of the Georgian doorway in the side gambrel and added decorative corner pilasters (Sheppard 1985: 15). Within the district other earlier structures were also the subject of Colonial Revival alterations. The Newton House (#5) is a Greek Revival gablefront cottage which received a new entrance and other alterations, designed by Louis Sheldon Newton for his family's use. Newton was also responsible for interior alterations to the Second Congregational Church (#1) in 1903 which included covering frescoes with a colonial-classic enriched frieze (Sheppard 1985: 15). New construction in the Colonial Revival style includes the Cone House (#22), a 2 ½-story, 3 x 2-bay structure with pedimented ends, pediment dormers and a single-story porch supported by Roman Doric columns.
The Hartford Grammar School (#56) was constructed in 1906, designed by Boston architects, Hurd & Grove. The brick building is capped by a hip roof. Ornamentation is limited to brick and granite beltcourses with rough granite sills and flat arch brick lintels framing the windows. On Main Street, earlier commercial buildings were updated and remodeled during this period. It appears that a falsefront was applied to the block at 207 Main Street (#14) while the Brooks-Pease Block (#15) was improved by a new brick veneer, bracketed cornice and new storefronts. Another late 19th century commercial building which formerly houses Pease's feed story later found new usefulness as Cascadnac Grange (#25).
Limited new residential construction took place within the district during the early 20th century. The American Foursquare mode is represented by the Braley-Garipay House (#19). As is typical, it displays a two-story, hipped roof form, squarish in plan with a hipped roof dormer centered on the front slope and a single-story porch spanning the façade, supported by clustered Roman Doric columns on bases. The French House (#51) is another good example of the style; its single-story porch is supported by turned posts and windows include individual and paired 1/1 sash. The Roberts House (#31) is a hip-roofed structure displaying a clapboarded first floor with wood shingles above.
The Allard House (#32) is a good example of the Bungalow style. The single-story, wood-shingled building has a gently pitched broad gablefront decorated by brackets, with a front porch supported by Roman Doric columns on shingled bases. The Davis-Kimball Cottage (#50) is another, more altered example of the Bungalow form.
Elmwood Court, off School Street, was developed during the early 20th century and is lined by a series of three 1 ¾-story gablefront cottages which lack any stylistic ornamentation. The houses at 6 Elmwood Court (#66), 8 Elmwood Court (#67) and 10 Elmwood Court (#68) were all constructed about 1920. Located at the corner of Elmwood Court and School Street, the Stevens Tenement House (#64) is a vernacular gablefront building constructed in 1923. The building may have originally been sheathed in wood shingles. Its paired 6/6 windows suggest a Colonial Revival influence.
In general the Hartford Village District has seen few intrusions since 1947. Despite the loss of the industrial structures, the district is still able to convey its historic context as a mill village. The economic downturn which the village experienced in recent years in many ways preserved it from intrusions. In most cases where alterations have occurred, they have been incremental in nature and do little to compromise the quality of the district. Although many of the structures have been covered in sidings, the massing and general feeling of the village remain very much intact. The most visible new structures in the district are the Aher Brothers Supermarket (#16), the Gas Station (#17), and the commercial building at 2 School Street (#23). The Hartford Diner (#24) was moved to its present site in 1948 although it was constructed on a lot across the street a few years previous.
Lastly, the Hartford Village District is of interest for its associations with local architect, Louis Sheldon Newton (1871-1953). An active Vermont architect whose career spanned from the turn of the century to the early 1950s, Newton specialized in alterations and new designs in the Georgian and Colonial Revival modes. Born on a farm in Hartford, Newton attended St. Johnsbury Academy and later studied architecture with J. Merrill Brown in Boston in the 1890s. He began his architectural practice in Lebanon, New Hampshire, but soon moved his office to Hartford. Newton lived and practiced in Hartford from the 1890s until 1921, working for a time in the brick office on Main Street (#20A). During this period Newton designed the Wilder Club and Library, the White River Savings Bank and the Fairgrounds Grandstand in White River Junction; several residences and the national bank building in Woodstock, six private residences belonging to Dartmouth College as well as other residences in Hanover, Hildreth's Building in Lebanon, residences in Lyndonville and Canaan and Enfield, New Hampshire and alterations to the Old Constitution House in Windsor (Gateway 1904: 18-19). The alterations to the Kneeland-Cone House (#21) are of interest as Newton's earliest commission of record. Other buildings in the district with links to Newton include his family home (#5) and the Congregational Church (#1), for which he designed interiors alterations in 1903.
Verbal Boundary Description
The district boundary is drawn to include those buildings in Hartford Village, on both sides of Hartford Main Street between the Second Congregational Church (#1) and School Street, as well as properties on Pleasant Street, Summer Street, Park Street, Mapleside Terrace, Christian Street and Elmwood Court.
The boundary of the district begins at the southwest corner of property #3 (Map 9, Lot 149 on the local assessor's map) and thence proceeds in an easterly direction along the black lot line of the properties along the north side of Hartford Main Street. Upon reaching the southwest corner of property #31 (Map 31, Lot 41), the boundary continues eastward along the rear lot lines of the properties on the north side of Summer Street. At the northeast corner of property #48 (Map 31, Lot 91), the boundary extends in a northerly directly along the western and then the northern boundary of property #54 (Map 31, Lot 94). The boundary continues along the northern edge of property #52 (Map 31, Lot 59) and connects to the northern boundary of property #50 (Map 31, Lot 96). At this point the boundary crosses School Street to encompass the School, property #56 (Map 31, Lot 62). Crossing Christian Street, the boundary takes in property #55 (Map 31, Lot 98) and proceeds along the rear lot line of the properties on the east side of School Street specifically property #59 (Map 32, Lot 16) and property #62 (Map 32, Lot 15). The boundary continues westward to include property #69 (Map 32, Lot 21) and continues down the middle of Elmwood Court to the eastern boundary of property #65 (Map 32, Lot 21) and continues in a westward direction along the south side of Hartford Main Street, diverting to include three properties on the south side of the street - #24 (Map 32, Lot 5), #25 (Map 32, Lot 4) and #26 (Map 9, Lot 152). The boundary continues in a westerly direction along the center line of Main Street to the point of beginning.
MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
FORM PREPARED BY: Lisa Mausolf, Preservation Consultant for the Hartford Historic Preservation Committee.
20 Terrace Park
Reading, MA 01867
DATE ENTERED: September 3, 1998
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