Municipality: Springfield, VT
Location: Downtown Springfield
Site Type: Historic District
Vt Survey No: --
UTMs: (Zone 18) 704300/4797100. B. 704425/41796550. C. 704350/47916475. D. 703800/4796650. E. 703925/4796950. F. 703650/4797250. G. 703650/4798325
National Register Nomination Information:
The Springfield Downtown Historic District is comprised of 58 principal industrial, commercial, public and residential early 19th to early 20th century structures, primarily located along the main streets of downtown Springfield, paralleling the curving path of the Black River. Rising in height from 1 to 4 stories, the buildings are generally free standing, but closely spaced. The commercial, industrial and public structures are generally of brick construction, while the residences are mainly wood-frame. Most of the industrial buildings directly abut the river, historically their source of power. Most of the major 19th and early 20th century architectural styles are represented in the District, which remains a well-preserved example of the evolutionary growth of a mid-size urban Vermont center, with few modern intrusions to mar its historic character.
Springfield Village is located in the Black River Valley in the southeast corner of the Town of Springfield, Windsor County, Vermont. It is four miles northwest of the confluence of the Black and Connecticut rivers. The Village is dramatically sited in a narrow, glacially terraced river valley at a point where the Black River cascades over a succession of falls, amassing a total fall of 110 feet in an eighth of a mile.
The Springfield Downtown Historic District is concentrated in downtown Springfield Village along the banks of the Black River. It encompasses the central business district on Main Street, and parts of Valley and Elm streets, and it is centered around the historic mill structures which line the river and extend along Mineral, Park, Pearl, and River streets.
A small open square at the head of Main Street between Summer and Valley streets, distinguishes the core of the business district. It is bordered by nineteenth century residential, commercial, and religious buildings. At the north end of the square, at the head of Main Street, is the Greek Revival Style Tarro Block, 2 Valley Street (#2), which establishes the visual and physical end of Main Street and defines the north boundary of the Village Square. Adjacent to the block on the east is the twin-towered, Gothic Revival style United Methodist Church, 10 Valley Street (#3), and the residential/ commercial buildings at the foot of Valley Street, 12-20 Valley Street (#4-6).
The integrity of the Square was compromised by the loss of the Shingle style Adnabrown Hotel by fire in 1961. The present Vermont National Bank, 6 Main Street (#7), set farther back from the street than was the hotel, does not reflect the original perimeter of the square. The original east line is recovered by the Italianate style Leland Block, 26 Main Street (#8), and The Lincoln and McKinley Block, 28 Main Street (#9), at the corner of Summer and Main Streets. These two blocks are set back 65¹ from the east line of lower Main Street. The 1812 Sparrow Block, 30 Main Street (#10), forms an important anchor at the southeast corner of the square. The southwest corner is anchored by the excellent Italianate style Woolson Block, 39 Main Street (#41). The west side of the square extends from the Woolson Block across Park Street to the Art Deco Wheeler Block, 27-31 Main Street (#42), and continues to the Cannistraci Building, 10 River Street (#51) opposite the Tarro Block. A bandstand once marked the center of the paved square. Behind the buildings at the northwest end of the square is the former Cobb and Derby gristmill, 5 Main Street (#47), on the Black River just above the Village Falls.
Elm, Summer, and Park Streets diverge sharply from the Square and curve up the hillsides to the upper residential terraces overlooking the central business district. Overlooking the Square from the edge of one of the terraces at the head of Main Street is the Colonial Revival style Springfield Art and Historical Society, 9 Elm Street (#1). Its location and height make it a prominent visual landmark in the District.
Before the settlement of the village in 1774 the immediate vicinity of the Square was a swamp with Mile Brook running through its center. Mile Brook is now piped under the Square to the Black River. The hillsides were reportedly rich with Mineral Springs, thus giving Mineral Street its name.
Main Street south of the Square is lined with a random integration of residential, commercial, public, industrial and religious buildings. Outstanding among these is the brick and terra cotta Renaissance Revival style Springfield Town Library, 43 Main Street (#40); the Bank Block, 56 Main Street (#12), reputed to be the only example of a Renaissance Revival commercial block in Windsor County; the brick Colonial Revival style First Congregational Church, 77 Main Street (#37); the Colonial Revival Continental Telephone Company building, 85 Main Street (#36); the Italianate style Municipal Building, 96 Main Street (17); the Greek Revival style home of inventor David M. Smith, 138 Main Street (#25); the factory of the Lovejoy Tool Company, 133 Main Street (#31); and the late Gothic Revival style Calvary Baptist Church, 156 Main Street (#28), at the foot of the street.
Immediately west of the Square on Park Street is the 1916 concrete Falls Bridge which crosses the Black River at the Village Falls, the most spectacular of the natural falls in the Black River, and the location of many of the earliest mill sites in the Village.
South of the bridge is the former Shoddy Mill building, 10 Park Street (#52) erected by the John T. Slack Corporation as a part of its extensive Shoddy Mill complex between the Black River and Mineral Street. South of the Mill Building is the Slack Chimneystack (#53) and the Textron Building (#54) which were also part of the Shoddy Mill complex. These three structures are the only remaining evidence of the once extensive wool reclamation factory which was in the 1930s one of the world's largest shoddy plants .The mill buildings have been gradually demolished since 1957.
North of the bridge on Park Street are located the oldest remaining mill structures in the Village. They include: the brick Springfield Co-operative Savings and Loan building, 16-18-22-24 Park Street (#55), erected in 1836 as a cotton mill; the Bowling Alley, 11 Park Street (#56), part of which was built in 1841 as a marble polishing mill; and the Parks and Woolson factory, 33 Park Street (#57) built in 1839 for the production of cloth finishing machinery.
North of Park Street) between Pearl and River streets, is the largest mill complex in the district, The Fellows Gear Shaper Company (#58) on the west bank of the Black River. Its imposing waterfront facade extends along the Black River for approximately 1000 feet. The monumental complex was built from 1899 to 1953 for the production of gear-shaping machinery. The complex provides an important historical and visual anchor to the northend of the historic district. The Fellows Gear Shaper Company complex was the largest and best known of the precision tool industries in .Springfield, and it directly contributed to the late nineteenth century place-name designation of Springfield as the Precision Valley.
Scattered throughout the district are a few buildings that do not contribute to the historic integrity of the community, they include numbers 5a, 7, 14, 19, 33a, 39, 44 and sections b, d, g, h, i, j, and k of 58.
The buildings and structures included in the Springfield Downtown Historic District are as follows (numbers refer to the enclosed sketch map):
1. Springfield Art and Historical Society, 9 Elm Street: (c.1866; remodeled c.1917).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, hip-roofed, brick Italian Villa/Colonial Revival style residential building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, wood exterior trim, and slate covered roof. It is a 45' x 35' building with a central hall plan , 1-story, flat-roofed wing, and a 13-foot deep colossal Doric portico. The house exhibits tall corbeled chimneys, hip-roofed dormers with double-lights, a box cornice, segmental arched windows with 2/2 sash and granite keystones and kneelers, coupled windows with moulded cornices, a polygonal 1-story bay window, and a glazed conservatory. The Colonial Revival Style frontispiece entrance has a fanlight, and sidelights flanked by Doric columns which support an entablature with a balustrade. The colossal Doric portico also exhibits an eaves balustrade.
The Springfield Art and Historical Society, also known as the Miller Art Center and previously called the Whitcomb Mansion, "The Pillars", and the Gilman Mansion, was built in 1866 by Prentis Whitcomb, a wealthy financier associated with Jim Fiske and Jay Gould of New York City. In the 1890s it was the home of Wilbert Gilman, owner of the Gilman Mill, a lathe manufacturing plant, which was located on the east bank of the Black River at the foot of Elm Street until it burned in 1968. The house was remodeled in c.1917 by Walter Slack who had purchased the Gilman interests. The property was given to the town in 1955 by then owners Edward Miller, president of the Fellows Gear Shaper Company, for an art center and historical society. The house is dramatically sited on a high terrace at the head of Main Street and overlooks the Black River to the west, and the village of Springfield to the south.
Polygonal 2-story garage with clapboard siding, a bellcast mansard roof and 1-story side extension.
2. The Tarro Block, 2 Valley Street: (1834).
3-1/2-story, 6 x 4 bay, gable-roofed, brick Greek Revival style commercial building with stone foundation, brick masonry walls, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. It is a U-shaped building with a rectangular 49 x 36' main section and two 2-1/2-story, timber-framed clapboarded ells. The building exhibits end chimneys, timber window lintels, 8/8 and 1/1 sash, and non-original clipped northwest corner, a second story Chicago style window, and first story store fronts with plate glass display windows.
The Tarro Block was built in 1834 as two separate town houses by George Washburn and Daniel Cushing. Washburn was a saddle maker and operated a harness and saddle shop in the first floor of his residence. Cushing was a local saw and gristmill owner.
3. United Methodist Church of Springfield, 10 Valley Street: (1843-44; remodeled in 1882, 1886, 1916; enlarged in 1866, 1961).
2-1/2-story, 84' x 84', 6 x 3 bay, gable-roofed, stone Gothic Revival church with stone foundation, random ashlar fieldstone walls, and a slate covered roof. The original 3 x 3 bay church has a rectangular plan with second story auditorium and a truncated front gable surmounted by a three-stage steeple, including a square base with clock, an octagonal louvered bell chamber with Gothic arched apertures in gablets, and an octagonal spire. The steeple is 80 feet high. Attached to the east corner of the building is a 74 feet-high bell tower built in 1866. Similar to the original steeple but with squater proportions. The flat-roofed east wing was built in 1961 with the front facade using the same stone as the main building. The church was built in 1843-44 by Samuel Taylor, a local mason.
4. The Anne Pheur House, 12 Valley Street: (c.1880).
2-1/2-story, 37' x 40', 3 x 3 bay, cross-gable roofed, Italianate style residential building with brick foundation, asbestos siding, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. This sidehall plan building exhibits a box cornice with return, 2/2 sash, a 2-story polygonal bay window, 1-story enclosed right side porch, and a bracketed hood over the main entrance. Attached to the north (rear) gable end of the building is a 3-story, 18 room, balloon-framed tenement with a low gable roof and asbestos siding.
5. Sew and Vac Center, 16 Valley Street: (c.1867).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 6 bay, cross-gable roofed, commercial and residential building with brick foundation, clapboard siding, wood trim and a slate covered roof. The building has overall dimensions of 24 x 66 feet. It exhibits a box cornice without returns, 2/2 sash, exterior stairways, a second story porch with turned posts, above a storefront with a recessed entrance flanked by large plate glass display windows.
1-story, balloon-frame, gable roofed, 2-car garage with clapboard siding and metal covered roof. Does not contribute to the historic character of the district.
6. The Old Wynan Place, 18-20 Valley Street (c.1858).
2-1/2-story, 5 x 2 bay, timber-framed, gable-roofed, Greek Revival commercial/residential building with a stone foundation, clapboard siding, wood trim, and an asphalt shingle-covered roof. Main block with eaves-front facade and a 2-1/2-story, gable-roofed ell. The building exhibits a box cornice with returns, corner pilasters, 2/2 sash, and a store front on the first floor with a central entrance flanked by presently boarded up display windows. The building was built c.1858 by Hiram F. Wynan.
7. Vermont National Bank, 6 Main Street: (c.1962).
1-story, hip-roofed concrete block 1960's Colonial Revival commercial building with a concrete foundation, brick veneered walls, and an asphalt shingle-covered roof with a hip-roofed cupola. Does not contribute to the historic character of the district.
8. The Leland Block, 26 Main Street: (1867; enlarged 1884, 1914).
3-story, 3 x 4 bay, flat-roofed, brick Italianate commercial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, and a flat built-up roof. It exhibits a denticulated cornice supported by paired brackets, a brick string course, corner quoins, coupled segmental-arched windows with label mouldings and a storefront with cast iron columns. The south side of the store front has been altered.
The Leland Block was built as a dry goods store in 1867 by Smith K. Randall and George 0. Henry. The so-called Randall Block was a 2-story brick building with two stores on the first floor. In 1884 Charles A. Leland and Son purchased the block and added a third story. In 1914 the Sparrow Amusement Company built a 370 seat theatre on the east (rear) wall of the building.
9. The Lincoln and McKinley Block, 28 Main Street: (c.1870; remodeled 1894; enlarged 1903).
4-story 105' x 47', 6 x 6 bay, flat-roofed, brick, Italianate style commercial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, brick exterior trim, and a built-up roof. The north, Italianate section of the block was built c.1870 by Johnathan Chase. It was remodeled in 1894 by the addition of a fourth floor. In 1903, the Summer Street facade was built following the angle of the street. The building exhibits a consoled cornice, flat-arched,round-arched,and segmental arched windows, 1/1 sash, corner quoins, label mouldings, commemorative tablets, and plate glass display windows in the first floor store fronts.
10. The Tontine-Commonwealth-Sparrow Block, 30 Main Street: (1812; remodeled 1894).
3-story, 5 x 5 bay, flat-roofed, brick commercial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, wood exterior trim, and a built-up roofing. The building has overall dimensions of 43 x 45 feet. It exhibits a paired bracketed cornice, 2/1 sash, and a store front with a recessed entrance flanked by large display windows.
The building was erected in 1812 as a residence by Isaac Fisher, a prominent figure in the early development of Springfield. In 1894, William Sparrow renovated the block, adding a full third story and flat roof for the headquarters of an athletic club known as the Commonwealth Club. The building was briefly known as the Commonwealth Block. It is now referred to the Sparrow Block.
11. The Lawrence and Wheeler Building, 46 Main Street: (1895).
3-1/2-story, 4 x 5 bay, gable-roofed commercial building with a concrete foundation, clapboard siding, and an asbestos shingled roof. It exhibits pedimented gable ends, a demilune window in the front pediment, corner pilasters, 1/1 sash, and a projecting store front with multi-paned display windows. The Lawrence and Wheeler building is connected to the Sparrow Block (#10) by a 16' x 53' hyphen with a large multi-paned display window. This 24' x 53' block was built using two or more buildings which occupied the site of the .Springfield Town Library until they were moved to the present site and combined to form the block. The 1938 gable-roofed clock mounted to the facade has a dial in the lower half and stained glass in the upper half. It has stained glass letters which read: "Lawrence and Wheeler Insurance since 1828."
12. The Bank Block, 56 Main Street: (1907-09).
3-story, 144' x -80', 11 x 6 bay, flat-roofed, brick Renaissance Revival style commercial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, and built-up roofing. It exhibits a wall entablature with a consoled and denticulated cornice; two slightly projecting front pavilions with rusticated walls and coupled windows in frontispiece surrounds with triangular pediments at the third story level; large third story round-arched windows divided by Ionic pilasters and set under radially-muntined fanlights; coupled second story windows with flat arches with raised end voussoirs and keystones; a slightly projecting grand two story entrance with round-arched fanlight and balustraded parapet; twin two story oriel windows on the end walls; and a storefront cornice supported on the south end bays by the original storefront which has leaded transom lights, scamozzi pilasters, and engaged Ionic columns. The north storefront has been remodeled. A very elaborate baroque balustrade has been removed from the roof. The building is an excellent example of high-style Renaissance Revival commercial design.
13. Former Springfield Printing Company, 1 Bank Court: (c.1820).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed, brick Federal style building with a brick foundation, brick masonry walls, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. It has overall dimensions of 18 x 44 feet with a non-original 2-story, 20' x 44' shed-roofed wing. It exhibits a box cornice with returns, 2/2 sash, a sidehall entrance, and a facade articulated by arcaded bays; each bay exhibits an elliptical arch with keystone and impost block.
This block was originally built on the west side of Main Street immediately south of the I.O.O.F. Block (19 Main Street). It was moved to its present location in 1936 when the former W. T. Grant block was built. It was known as the Stiles Block and housed for many years the Springfield Reporter, a weekly newspaper founded in 1878 by Frank Stiles. It is one of the oldest structures in the District and is an excellent example of Federal design.
14. The "High Rise", 80 Main Street: (c. 1973).
7-story, 100' x 50', 9 x 4 bay, flat-roofed, poured concrete building with a concrete foundation, brick veneered facade, and a concrete roof. The building is distinguished by 6-story, polygonal oriel windows. Does not contribute to the historic character of the district.
15. Christian Service Society, 90 Main Street: (c.1900).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 6 bay, gambrel-roofed building with brick foundation, asbestos siding,wood exterior trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. The building has a sidehall plan and overall dimensions of 28' x 60'. It exhibits a box cornice, shed roofed dormers, pedimented gambrel ends, 1/1 sash, a sidehall entrance with sidelights and overscaled surround, and a 3-story polygonal bay window, and a recessed 3-story open porch with enclosed connecting stair well on the southside of the building.
16. 1 Church Court: (c. 1898).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 4 bay, gable-roofed, Queen Anne style building with a brick foundation, clapboard siding, wood exterior trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. It exhibits shed-roofed dormers, skirted pedimented gable ends, 1/1 sash, a front polygonal bay window, and an entrance porch with Tuscan columns on the first floor and a balustrade encircling the roof above.
17. Springfield Municipal Building, 96 Main Street: (1859; remodeled 1938).
2-1/2-story with full basement, 3 x 5 bay, gable-roofed brick building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, wood exterior trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. The Italianate style Town Hall or Municipal Building exhibits a consoled cornice, pedimented gable ends, a denticulated brick cornice, a tri-lobed arched louver in the pediment, brick corner quoins, bracketed window sills and lintels, and 1/1 sash. A non-original canopy on the south wall shelters the entrance to the Municipal offices. The original first story frontispiece central entrance has been removed and replaced with double-hung windows under an elliptical arch. The front of the basement has been excavated and redesigned. The building was remodeled in 1938.
18. The Polodore Building, 100 Main Street: (c.1850).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 4 bay, gable-roofed house with concrete foundation, asbestos siding, wood exterior trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. The house has a 24' x 29' main section, and a 17' x 24' wing. It exhibits a box cornice without returns, 1/1 and 2/2 sash and a 2-story full-width front porch with Tuscan colonettes on the second story and square posts on the first story. The porch has an asphalt clapboarded porch railing.
19. The Old Kimball House, 104 Main Street: (c.1853).
1-1/2-story, 3 x 4 bay, gable-roofed, vernacular Italianate style building with a stone foundation, vertical board siding, wood trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. It has a 21' x 26' main section with a 14' x 24' 1-1/2-story, gable-roofed wing with a 15' x 20' attached shed. It exhibits a bracketed box cornice without returns, 2/2 sash, a one-story, 1 x 2 bay enclosed front porch, and a modern double entrance with crossbuck doors. The wing has a tipped window. This house was built by George Kimball, a blacksmith who operated a shop just above the present Lovejoy Tool Company (133 Main Street). Due to substantial alteration the building is included in the District as a non-contributing structure.
20. The Old Messenger Place, 108 Main Street: (c. 1860).
1-1/2-story, 2 x 3 bay, gable-roofed house with a concrete foundation, asbestos siding, wood trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. It exhibits a box cornice without returns, kneewalls, gabled dormers, a side polygonal bay window, a picture window on the left front, and a shed-roofed carport. It has a 21' x 25' main section with a 14' x 26' wing. The house was built by Joseph Messenger, foreman of D. D. Smith and Company, manufacturer of spring clothes pins. The house is very similar to its neighbors, numbers 21 and 22.
21. Tuttle-McGee House, 112 Main Street: (c.1860).
1-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed house with a stone foundation, asbestos siding, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. It has a 22' x 13' main section with a 2-story 27' x 35' wing, and a 18' x 24' garage attached to the wing. The house has a sidehall plan and exhibits a box cornice without returns, kneewalls, 1/1 sash, a double-leaf entrance, and a shed-roofed front porch with square posts and a boxed railing. This was the home and office of Dr. L. M. Tuttle, a physician active in Springfield in the second half of the nineteenth century. The house is very similar to its neighbors, numbers 20 and 22.
22. The Gilson House, 116 Main Street: (c.1860).
1-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed house with stone foundation, asbestos siding and an asphalt shingle covered roof. The house has a main section of 24' x 20', a 16' x 21' wing and attached shed. This sidehall plan building exhibits a box cornice without returns, kneewalls, a gable dormer on the north slope and a shed dormer on the south slope, 2/2 sash, and a hip roofed porch with square posts and boxed railing. The house is believed to have been built by the Gilson Family. The house is very similar to its neighbors, numbers 20 and 21.
23. The Griffin Block, 120 Main Street: (c.1889).
Two story mansard, 4 x 4 bay, French Second Empire style building with a stone foundation, asphalt siding, wood trim, and a slate covered roof. This building is square in plan with overall dimensions of 54' x 54' with a 2-story shed-roofed addition. It exhibits shallow projecting gable dormers with single and double windows, 1/1 sash, coupled windows, and a 2-story porch with square posts and boxed railings. This building was erected c.1889 as a tenement building.
24. Springfield Post Office, 132 Main Street: (1935).
1-story, 5 x 5 bay, brick building with concrete foundation, masonry walls, and a built-up roof. The post office exhibits decorative panels over the windows, a slightly projecting central entrance pavilion, flat arched windows with keystones, a prominent watertable, and a cornerstone. The building was designed by Frank Lyman Austin of Burlington, VT. Built by the Postal Service, it is typical of post offices constructed in smaller urban areas throughout the country.
25. The David M. Smith House, 138 Main Street: (c.1858).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed, Greek Revival style residential building with a stone foundation, clapboard siding, and a slate covered roof. The house has a main block 32' x 32', a 16' x 16' conservatory, a 28' x 28' wing with ell, and attached sheds. It exhibits a box cornice with returns, pedimented gable ends, a bracketed cornice, corner pilasters, 2/2 sash, an L-shaped hip-roofed porch with Tuscan colonettes, and a recessed sidehall entrance with sidelights. The wing and ell have tall, steeply pitched gable dormers. The conservatory has multipaned transom lights.
This house was built by the prolific Springfield inventor, David M. Smith. Smith invented an awl heft, a combination lock, the lathe dog, the spring clothespin, a blanket hook and eye used by the army, a corn planter, a screw head and driver, a broom holder, a lifting spring for match-boxes, an adding machine, a breech-loading firearm, and a joint for carpenter's rules .Smith was also a partner in Smith, Burr and Company, manufacturer of hames.
26. The Slade House, 148 Main Street: (c. 1853).
2-story, 3 x 2 bay, gable-roofed-, carpenter Gothic style house with a stone foundation, aluminum siding, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. The house has a central hall layout and a t-shaped plan with a 31' x 21' main section and a 22' x 25' ell with attached end wall porch. It exhibits scrollsawn verge boards, a box cornice without returns, a steeply pitched central gable wall dormer with a polygonal louver, a 3-part picture window on the left side wall, a central bay entrance porch with Lattice valance and latticework supports, and fieldstone front steps.
27. Wand-Austin House,154 Main Street: (c.1858).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed house with a stone foundation, vinyl siding, wood exterior trim, and an asphalt shingle covered roof. The house has a 30' x 23' main section, a 1-story enclosed porch on the south sidewall, and a 20' x 19' wing and attached shed. The house has a sidehall plan and exhibits a box cornice without returns, 1/1 sash, and a 1-story, 3 x 3 bay, hip-roofed front porch with turned posts with bracketed heads and balustrade with turned balusters. The house is often referred to as the Dr. Ward House after Dr. Ward who lived here in the 1930s.
28. The Calvary Baptist Church Of Springfield, 156 Main Street: (c. 1924, enlarged 1958).
1-story, 3 x 4 bay. gable-roofed, brick Late Gothic Revival style church with crenelated corner bell tower, concrete foundation, brick masonry walls, concrete trim, and a slate covered roof. The original church had overall dimensions of 40' x 75'. Attached to the east end wall is a 2-story 36' x 50' educational wing designed by Henry Day and built in 1958. The original building was designed by Frank Lyman Austin of Burlington, VT. It exhibits an open cornice, pointed-arched stained-glass windows with hoodmolds, a rose window in the front gable peak, a Tudor arched entrance with stained glass transom and double doors, and a prominent watertable. The three-story tower has a battlemented parapet, pointed arched, louvered bell chamber openings with tracery, and a first floor side door to the tower stairwell.
29. Calvary Baptist Church Parsonage, 158 Main Street: (c.1860).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 5 bay, gable-roofed house with a brick foundation, aluminum siding, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. The parsonage has an L-shaped plan and a sidehall layout. It exhibits a narrow box cornice with returns, 2/2 sash, a sidehall entrance with transom light and sidelights, and an L-shaped porch with Tuscan columns.
30. The Community Center, 139 Main Street: (c.1888).
Composed of 2 structures, a 3-story, 9 x 6 bay, monitor-roofed industrial building with a stone foundation, aluminum siding, wood exterior trim and built up roofing, a 2-story, 10 x 6 bay, flat-roofed industrial building with a stone foundation, aluminum siding, and built up roofing. The two buildings are divided by a brick firewall and together they form the Community House, operated by the Parks and Recreation Department of the Town of Springfield. It has overall dimensions of 154' x 61'. The building exhibits multi-paned wood sash. The monitor of the south bldg. has been incorporated into a third story gymnasium. The structure was erected in 1888 as the original manufacturing facilities of the Jones and Lamson Machine Company. manufacturers of turret lathes and screw machines. It was given to the town for use as a community house in 1942 by Jones and Lamson and the Springfield Manufacturers' Association.
31. Lovejoy Tool Company, 133 Main Street: (c.1912; c.1977).
3-story, 3 x 15 bay, monitor-roofed, steel frame industrial building with a concrete foundation, brick walls, concrete exterior trim, and built-up roofing. It has overall dimensions of 74 by 149 feet. Attached to the building on the south is a 30 x 70 foot 2-story brick building erected c.1977, and a 48' x 120' 2-story framed building erected c.1896. The c.1912 building exhibits a continuous ventilator monitor, a corbeled brick cornice, and multi-paned wood sash grouped between wallpiers. The windows form continuous bands at each story level. The Jones and Lamson Machine Company erected the building c.1912 as part of their lathe and screw machine business. It was purchased in 1948 by the Lovejoy Tool Company, a child company of Jones and Lamson for its use in the production of small tools.
32. The Pilaro Building, 115 Main Street: (c. 1925).
2-story, 3 x 3 bay, flat roofed, residential building with stone foundation asbestos siding, wood trim, and built-up roofing. It has overall dimensions of 29 x 34 feet. It exhibits a box cornice, 3/1 sash, a second story shed-roofed porch across the rear west wall, a first-story cornice, l-bay, gable roofed entrance porch with square posts, and a garage bay on the right side of the first floor facade.
33. The Sicard Building, 111 Main Street: (c.1930).
1-1/2-story, 3 x 2 bay, gable roofed commercial/residential building with a stone foundation, brick veneer and vinyl siding, wood trim, and an asphalt shingle-covered roof. It has overall dimensions of 22 x 36 feet. The gable front structure exhibits raking frieze boards with sculpted ends, two contemporary entrance doors with upper glass panels and a flush plate glass display window beside the doors.
34. The Green House 105 Main Street. (c.1930).
1-1/2-story with partially above grade basement story, 5 x 2 bay, brick residential building with brick foundation, brick masonry walls, wood exterior trim, and a slate-covered roof. It has a rectangle-shaped main block with overall dimensions of 40 x 28 feet. A timber-framed 21' x 18', 2-1/2-story, north wing has an enclosed front porch and a deteriorated 2-story rear porch with the roof deck. The house has a central hall plan and exhibits end chimneys, non-original shed-roofed dormers, a narrow box cornice with returns. a central entrance and 1/1 sash. Secondary entrances are found on the left exposed basement facade and on the north wing: all of the entrances are sheltered by gabled hoods supported on open braces.
35. Herrick-Nye House, 101 Main Street: (c.1858).
2-1/2-story, 2 x 5 bay, gable-roofed, vernacular Greek Revival style residential building with a brick foundation. asphalt siding, wood exterior trim, and a slate covered roof. It has overall dimensions of 24 x 50 feet. The building exhibits a box cornice without returns, 2/2 sash, a 1 x 1 bay hip-roofed entrance porch on the south wall, a 1 x 2 bay, hip-roofed entrance porch on the east wall, a braced, shed-roofed porch across the west wall. It has a central entrance with sidelights on the south wall.
Parallelogram-shaped, shed-roofed 20' x 16' garage. Attached to the northwest corner of #35. Does not contribute to the historic character of the District.
36. Continental Telephone Company of Vermont, 85 Main Street: (c. 1929).
3-story, 5 x 6 bay, flat-roofed, brick Colonial Revival commercial building with a concrete foundation, brick masonry walls, wood and brick exterior trim, and built-up roofing. Attached to the 32' x 36' main section on the south is a newer 1-story, flat-roofed brick, 60' x 71' addition and attached to the northwest end of the building is an also newer 33' x 37', 1-story addition. The main building has a brick parapet, a denticulated wood cornice, flat arched windows with 6/1 sash, and a second story central triple window with pilasters, impost blocks, and a surmounting semicircular relieving arch. It also exhibits a well-designed Colonial Revival storefront which features a full entablature with denticulated cornice, Doric pilasters, continuous transom with arcaded, round arched lights, a recessed entrance with a glazed polygonal vestibule, compound pilasters, entablature, denticulated cornice, and a scroll pediment. The building was designed in 1928 by Edward Hunter of Hanover, N.H. It is also referred to as the Springfield Local Telephone Company.
37. First Congregational Church of Springfield, 77 Main Street: (1833; remodeled and enlarged 1869, 1927, 1963, 1981).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed brick Georgian Revival church with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, brick and wood exterior trim, and a slate-covered roof. The church exhibits a central bell tower with an octagonal slate-covered spire, octagonal bell chamber with round-arched louvers and a square drum with false windows. It rests mainly on a projecting gable-roofed pavilion with three semicircular-arched entrances and a hexastyle portico. The portico has pilasters, six colossal modified Corinthian columns, a reeded frieze, a modillion cornice, and a global window in the tympanum.
Aligned above the three entrance doors are three 12/12 windows. The sidewalls of the church have 20/20 sash on the upper level and squat 8/8 windows on the lower level. The Congregational Church was built in 1833 in the Greek Revival style. It was remodeled in 1869 in the High Victorian Gothic style and features a high style tower with tabernacle frames on spire and bell chamber stage. The tabernacle frames were removed when the church was remodeled in 1927 in the Georgian Revival style. The present appearance of the church is derived from the 1927 remodeling. A kitchen and storage space were added to the rear of the building in 1963 and 1981.
38. Springfield Masonic Association, 71 Main Street: (c.1830; c.1880; addition 1936).
2-1/2-story, 3 x 3 bay, gable-roofed brick building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, wood trim, and slate covered roof. The main building has overall measurements of 28' x 20'. Attached to the rear of the building is a 2-story, flat-roofed brick structure measuring 38' x 56' which was built in 1936. The Masonic building was erected c.1830 as a sidehall plan Greek Revival style residential building. It exhibits pedimented gable ends with decorative shingling in the tympanum, 1/1 sash, 1-story polygonal and elliptical bay windows, and a Queen Anne style porch with turned posts on pedestals. The house was built by the Perkins family and was owned by the Slack family prior to its ownership by the Masons.
39. Furman's, 59 Main Street: (c.1940).
1-story, flat-roofed, 47' x 135', false front commercial building with concrete foundation, brick veneered walls and a built up roof. The block exhibits a recessed central entrance flanked by continuous plateglass display windows, and an unarticulated false front with a metal covered copestone. The building was erected in 1940 by the First National Supermarket chain. It has been Furman's Department Store since 1958. Non-contributing.
40. Springfield Town Library, 43 Main Street: (c,1895; enlarged 1928, 1938, 1966-67, 1978).
1-story plus full basement, hip-roofed brick Renaissance Revival style library with a rusticated foundation, brick masonry walls, brick and terra cotta trim, and a slate-covered roof. The main building was erected in 1895 and has a T-shaped plan with a 40' x 56' main section and a 28' x 30' west wing. To this was added a 36' x 36' children's room to the south (on Main Street) in 1928, a 24' x 28' stack area to the rear of the original wing in 1938, a fire exit to the wing addition and new entrance steps to the main building in 1966-67, and a 50' x 50' addition to the rear of the 1928 wing in 1978. The 1928 "Barnard" wing was built in the same style as the main building, using the same scale, materials, and architectural details. All of the other additions are not visible from Main Street and they are sympathetic to the scale and material of the original building. The main block of the library exhibits iron ridge cresting; an entablature with a consoled cornice and terra cotta mouldings; an entrance pavilion with Corinthian corner pilasters and a pedimented gable with a circular terra cotta date plaque "1895"; a frieze with "Spafford Library Building~ inscribed; and the main entrance with a decorated round-arched pediment with round terra cotta state seal in the tympanum. Quoins mark the corners of the main block and the south wing. The windows are 1/1 with triangular pediments supported by consoles.
The Springfield Town Library was erected in 1895 with a $20,000 bequest left to the town by Henry Harrison Spafford. Originally known as the Spafford Library Building, it is now referred to as the Springfield Town Library. The building was designed by architects Willard P. Adden of Reading, Mass., and Russell W. Porter of Boston.
41. The Woolson Block, 39 Main Street: (c.1868).
3-story, 9 x 5 bay, flat-roofed, brick Italianate style commercial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, brick and wood exterior trim, and built-up roofing. It exhibits a bracketed and consoled cornice with dentils, a paneled frieze, corner quoins, corbeled brick segmentally arched label moulds with granite keystones over the windows, 2/2 sash. and bracketed sills. The original storefronts have recessed entrances flanked by plate glass display windows, a continuous storefront cornice and some cast iron components. On the rear corner of the north wall of the building, there is a one-story extension with detailing similar to the main block; it has large segmentally arched plate glass.windows.
The block was built in 1868 by Amasa Woolson, Horace W. Thompson, and Frederick Parks. Woolson was president of the Parks and Woolson Machine Company and the Jones and Lamson Machine Company. The design of the Woolson Block has been attributed to Montpelier, Vt., architect, George H. Gvernsey (1840-1900). It is an excellent example of Italianate design and a landmark structure in the District.
42. Wheeler's, 27-31 Main Street: (c.1932).
1-story, 3 x 5 bay, flat-roofed, brick Art Deco commercial building with a concrete foundation, brick masonry walls, and built-up roofing. It has overall dimensions of 51' x 73'. It exhibits bay piers with setback crowns, a canted corner entrance with an Art Deco date stone "1932" in the cornice and recessed plate glass display windows. The windows, including bands of small windows placed high on the wall of the Park Street elevation, are set off by brick soldier courses. This Art Deco style commercial building was erected in 1932 and contained two stores at that time.
43. Vigo Block, 7 Park Street: (c.1935).
3-story, 2 x 4 bay, flat roofed commercial building with concrete foundation with vinyl siding, and built-up roofing. The building has 1/1 sash, and a projecting storefront with twin doors flanking a central plate glass window. Above the storefront, the second story also projects in an enclosed porch.
44. Grant's, 23-25 Main Street: (c.1936).
1-story, 4 bay front, flat-roofed brick commercial building with concrete foundation, masonry walls, and built-up roofing. It has overall dimensions of 57' x 86'. The building is divided into two stores with recessed entrances flanked by large display windows. It has a false front. The original marble veneer of the storefront has been sheathed with vertical boarding. The building was occupied by a W. T. Grant Store for many years. It is non-contributing to the historic district in its present appearance.
45. I.O.O.F. Block, 19 Main Street: (c.1899).
3-story, 5 x 4 bay, flat-roofed Queen Anne style commercial building with a brick foundation, clapboard siding, and built-up roofing. The block has over all dimensions of 51' x 63'. It exhibits a bracketed cornice, a paneled frieze, 1/1 sash with Eastlake surrounds, a stringcourse with lozenge paterae, and an altered storefront. The I.O.O.F. Block was built in 1889 by Asahel P. Fairbanks. It was known as the Fairbanks Block until 1907 when the Odd Fellows purchased the block and renamed it.
46. The Brown Block, 9 Main Street: (c. 1868; moved 1891; Moderne storefront c.1935).
3-story, 5 x 4 bay, flat-roofed Italianate style commercial block with a brick foundation, aluminum siding, wood trim, and built-up roofing. It exhibits a bracketed cornice, 1/1 sash with aluminum shutters, and a porcelain enamel moderne storefront. The projecting storefront displays the name "Springfield Bakery" in Broadway lettering across the top. The interior design and decoration of the store is also moderne, and it exhibits a long plywood veneer display case with sliding glass doors, and a counter recessed in the center for a cash register. Across the top of the case is a back-lit sign, recessed into the case, with wood letters which reads, "The Home of Good Things to Eat".
This building was erected in 1868 on the east side of Main Street opposite its present location. It was moved from its original site in 1891 to make way for the construction of the Adnabrown Hotel (1892). The storefront exterior and interior is an excellent example of Moderne design, a style rare in Vermont.
47. The Former Cobb and Derby Mill, 5 Main Street: (c.1882;1915).
3-story, 5 x 4 bay, post-and-beam framed industrial building with a stone foundation, clapboard siding and a flat roof with built-up roofing; attached to a 3-story, 4 x 1 bay, flat roofed warehouse. The warehouse was built c.1915 for the furniture store which occupied the Brown Block (#46). The warehouse is connected to the Brown Block by an enclosed overhead ramp. The mill and the warehouse have overall dimensions of 32 x 122 feet. The mill has a flat-roofed 1 x 1 bay cupola with an entablature, corner pilasters, and 6/6 sash. The Cobb and Derby Mill, or Springfield Mill as it was originally called, was built as a gristmill in 1882 by William Cobb and Granville Derby, dealers in flour, feed, and ~rain. The mill is the third gristmill to occupy the site, the first having been built in 1795. A saw mill occupied a part of the site from 1774 until it was destroyed in the flood of 1869. The village's early development centered around the gristmills and saw mill located at the falls in the Black River at this site.
48. 3 Main Street: (c.1882).
2-story, 5 x 4 bay, flat-roofed commercial building with a concrete foundation, aluminum siding and built-up roofing. The building is 43 x 31 feet with a 6 foot projecting storefront. It exhibits a roof cornice, frieze, 1/1 sash with aluminum shutters, and a projecting storefront with a central recessed entrance flanked by plate glass display windows. This building was erected in 1882 as an engine house for the village fire department.
49. The Putnam Building, 1 Main Street: (c. 1910).
2-story, 5 x 4 bay, flat-roofed commercial building with a concrete foundation, aluminum siding, wood exterior trim, and built-up roofing. It exhibits a parapeted false front, altered fenestration with 1/1 and singlepane sash, and a recessed entrance flanked by plate glass display windows. The building has overall dimensions of 42 x 40 feet. It maintains the scale and setback of the facade line at the north end of the district.
50. 1-A Main Street: (c.1885).
3-story, 6 x 4 bay, flat-roofed industrial building with a part stone and part concrete foundation, clapboard siding and built-up roofing. The building has overall dimensions of 45 x 37 feet. It exhibits a moulded cornice and a frieze, 2/2 sash with moulded drip caps and cornerboards with crown mouldings. This building was built in 1885 as part of the Cobb and Derby Mill complex.
51. 6 River Street: (c.1880).
3-story, 30 x 25 feet main building with a 1-story, 18' x 24' gable-roofed barn. The main building has clapboard siding and exhibits a combined flat and shed roof with cornice and returns, a frieze, cornerboards with moulded capitals, 2/2 and 1/1 sash with moulded drip caps, and a full basement with display windows flanking the sidewalk entrances. This block was built by R.J. Kenney in connection with his sash and blind factory.
52. 10 Park Street: (c. 1916).
2-story plus full basement, 2 x 11 bay, flat-roofed, brick industrial building with concrete foundation, brick walls, and built-up roofing. It exhibits concrete lintels and sills, wood sash with 12/12 lights, plank floors supported by timber and steel posts and 2 double-leaf freight doors on the west side elevation. It has overall dimensions of 32' x 243'. This building was erected in 1916 by the John T. Slack Corporation as a part of its extensive Shoddy mill complex along the Black River on Mineral street. Attached to the south end of the building is a non-contributing, 1-story, mid-twentieth century, flat-roofed concrete block extension. On the northeast corner, situated on ledges adjacent to the river, is a 20' x 20' non-contributing twentieth century powerhouse.
53. The Slack Chimney, Mineral Street. (c. 1905).
125' brick chimney and site of former electric plant. W. H. H. Slack and Bro., Company built the 125' chimney in 1905 for the furnaces attached to the hand-fired vertical boilers which supplied steam for a 500 horsepower Corliss engine with a 30,000 pound fly wheel and rope drive. The Company, later to become the John T. Slack Corporation generated electricity and supplied it to the Springfield Electric Company (organized in 1891). The Corporation later acquired the electric company and became the local electric public utility. They provided power for the Springfield Electric Railway Company. [Handwritten notation: Also see Slack Chimney file in NR File Copy file-documentation before demolition.]
54. Textron Inc., Plant #3 and #4, Mineral Street: (plant #3 c.1918; plant #4 c.1912).
Plant #3 was built c. 1918 by the John T. Slack Corporation as a carding mill for the Shoddy mill. It was known as "Mill A" in the Shoddy mill complex. It is a 2-story, 20 x 3 bay, 328' x 52' brick industrial building exhibiting stepped gable ends, concrete door and window lintels, double-hung wood sash with 12/12 lights (three windows per bay), and twin double door entrance on the facade. It has a loading dock at the south gable end. Immediately behind this building is plant #4 which was built in 1912 by the Slack Corporation. It is a 1-story, 20 x 3 bay, gable-roofed brick industrial building with concrete lintels and wood sash with 12/12 lights. It has overall dimensions of 328 x 47 feet. Both plants were built to handle the increased worldwide demand for reworked wool produced by the John T. Slack Corporation.
55. Springfield Co-operative Savings and Loan, 16-18-22-24 Park Street: (1836; remodeled 1951).
2-story, 8 x 2 bay, shed-roofed, brick industrial/commercial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, and built-up roofing. It has overall dimensions of 88 x 44 feet. It exhibits non-original sash, glass block enclosed door and windows on the first story, and a 1951 Colonial type storefront on the southeast facade. The building has stone door and window lintels, one of which has "A.D. 1836" carved in it. This brick building at the foot of Park Street was built in 1836 as a cotton mill by the Black River Manufacturing company (founded in 1820). It was purchased by John C. Holmes Co., Manufacturers of cottonwarp, in 1865. It became a part of the Slack Corporation in 1905, and in 1951 it was converted into offices.
56. The Bowling Alley, 11 Park Street: (1841; 1871; c.1920).
The Bowling Alley consists of two buildings, the 1841 Barney Block and the c.1870 Collins, Dillon and Company Mill with the pie-shaped c.1920 Corliss Hardware Co., addition between the bridge, the Black River and Park Street. The Barney Block was built in 1841 by businessman and inventor, A. H. Grinnell. Grinnell had invented a process of polishing marble. Grinnell's marble polishing business was purchased in 1861 by Franklin Barney who operated the Springfield Marble Works there. The Barney Block is a 3-story, timber-framed building with clapboard and composition siding, and a slate-covered roof. It has 2/2 sash and a brick firewall. The c.1870 Collins, Dillon and Company cotton mill is a 3-story with full basement, 4 x 7 bay building with stone foundation, clapboard and composition siding, and a slate-covered roof. It exhibits a box cornice with returns, 2/2 sash, and corner pilasters. The pie-shaped Corliss addition extends from this block to the bridge. It is a c.1920 3-story flat roofed structure with composition siding, 1/1 sash, and picture windows overlooking the falls. The entire building has an overall length of 121 feet and a width of 31 feet.
57. Riggs and Lombard-Parks and Woolson Division-Plant, 33 Park Street: (1829; remodeled 1859; expanded and remodeled 1877, 1910, 1914).
The Parks and Woolson complex centers around the original brick industrial building erected in 1829 by John Davidson and Frederick Parks. The building is a 3-1/2-story gable-roofed, 8 x 4 bay brick industrial building with a stone foundation, brick masonry walls, and a slate covered roof. The window and door lintels are of stone. The window openings are currently boarded up.
Attached to the northern end of the building is a c.1877 timber-framed gable roofed 2-1/2-story wing and a 3-1/2-story timber framed clapboarded addition. On the south end of the building is a c.1910 3-story, 4 x 6 bay brick wing and a 3-story, 6 x 4 bay brick annex. This building exhibits concrete lintels, multi-paned industrial windows and a flat roof.
The Parks and Woolson Machine Company is the oldest extant manufacturing establishment in Springfield. The original building was erected for the manufacture of cloth finishing and improved shearing equipment. John Davidson, Frederick Parks and Amasa Woolson all invented, patented and manufactured wool shearing and cloth finishing machinery during the 19th century. In 1960, Riggs and Lombard of which Parks and Woolson was a division, bought the Parks and Woolson property.
58. The Fellows Gear Shaper Company Complex, Pearl and River Streets:( c.1896-1953).
The Fellows Gear Shaper Company is located on the west bank of the Black River, at the upper falls, between the River and Pearl Street. Its simplified Moderne waterfront facade extends for approximately 1000 feet along the Black River and overlooks River Street. The buildings in the 300,000 square foot complex vary in style, plan, massing, use of materials and age. A variety of building techniques were employed in the construction of the factory buildings, including masonry wall, balloon frame, timber frame, steel frame, and reinforced concrete construction. The buildings date from 1896 to 1953. The physical plant increased dramatically during World Wars I and II when the demand for gear-shaping machinery was great. The complex was built for the manufacture of the gear shaper and gearshaper cutter. Based on a new gear-cutting concept developed by E. R. Fellows, the company's founder, the company produced gear-shaper machinery at the plant from 1896 until 1967 when the company built a new complex in North Spring field. The complex is presently unoccupied. A number of buildings within the complex are classified as non-contributing based on age and/or extent of alteration. Individual buildings in the complex are described below.
A. Single-span, single-lane, Pratt through truss bridge, (c.1912).
over the Black River and connecting River Street and the factory.
B. Building 5-A: (1953).
3-story, 42' x 57' x 66', 3 x 2 bay, steel and concrete building with concrete foundation, brick veneered walls, and a flat roof. The southeast corner of the building is cantilevered over the Black River. It maintains the scale, fenestration, rhythm, and visual use of materials as the adjacent river facade. Building 5-A does not contribute to the historic character of the district due only to its age.
C. Building 5: (1912).
3-story, 103' x 43', 5 x 3 bay, steel frame, brick wall building with a concrete foundation and built-up roofing. It exhibits parapeted walls with cast concrete copestones, a hip-roofed skylight, wood sash with 2/2 lights, concrete lintels and sills, and a central, arched portal opening off the bridge. "The Fellows Gear Shaper Company" appears in raised letters in the central, stepped parapet.
2-story, 49' x 23', 2 x 2 bay, steel frame, brick wall building with concrete foundation and a flat roof with built-up roofing. It exhibits the same design features as Building 5(c), with its roof parapet, wall articulation, and fenestration. 5 extension is non-contributory due to its age alone; in its scale fenestration rhythm, and visual use of materials it is consistent with the design and esthetics of the River front facade.
E. Buildings 4 and 20: (1919).
3-story, 216' x 167', 9 x 5 bay, steel frame, masonry wall building with poured concrete slab foundation, brick walls and built-up roofing. The third floor of the river front facade (19' x 167¹) was added in 1940. It has a concrete roof. The first story along the riverfront was an open driveway until it was enclosed in 1940. The driveway was enclosed simply by installing windows in the open bays between piers. The third floor addition extended the wall columns and reproduced the parapet of the riverfront facade. The outline of the original ornamental central curvilinear gable displaying the carved gear can be delineated in the facade. The gear bears the date "1919" when this section of the building was erected. The roof has three sawtooth monitors and several hip-roofed skylights.
F Building 6, The Powerhouse: (1917).
1-1/2-story, 24' x 24', 3 x 3 bay, hip-roofed, brick building sited at the western end of the Fellows Dam. The powerhouse still retains its original waterwheel turbine.
G. Building 30, Assembly and Tin Shop: (1935).
1-high-story, 82' x 92', 6 x 3 bay, steel framed brick wall building with concrete pad foundation and built-up roofing. Although this building is sympathetic to the design and scale of the river front buildings, it is non-contributory because of its age.
H. Building 14: (1914).
1-story, steel-framed building with a concrete pad foundation, brick walls, and built-up roofing. Interior beams are of steel and wood. Non-contributory to historic district due to extensive alterations.
I. Buildings 1, 2, 3, 13, 22, 23, 24, 25 (1896-1951).
Pearl Street facade. l-and-2-story flat-roofed steel frame, wood frame and brick buildings with concrete foundations, brick, plywood, and clapboarded walls and built-up roofing. This section of the complex has been successfully remodeled by continuous expansion and upgrading of the interior structural members. The delineation of older factory structures in this section is not distinguishable from new construction. All of these buildings have been restructured with steel and concrete so only isolated parts of the original structures remain . Non-contributory to historic district.
J. Buildings 10 and 11; Garage and Storage Area: (1925).
27' x 140', 1-story, shed-roofed brick garage attached to 3-story, flat roofed woodframed building, which is connected to the plant by an enclosed range overpass. Noncontributing owing to alterations.
K. Band Stand: (c.1914).
1-story, 2 x 2 bay, hip-roofed band stand with non-original plywood covered walls and an asphalt shingle covered roof. The bandstand was built for musicians to entertain during noon breaks. When the plant converted to oil heat, this was converted to an oil storage depot destroying its character as a bandstand. Due to alterations, it no longer contributes to the historic character of the district.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
Springfield Village, known as Lockwood's Mills in the late 18th century and as Precision Valley at the turn of the 20th century, is historically significant as one of Vermont's preeminent manufacturing centers. The local inventions patented and manufactured in Springfield had a marked influence on the industrialization of the nation. The monumental industrial complexes of the various machine tool works which developed along the banks of the Black River still survive. The architectural quality of the public, commercial, and residential buildings on the Main Street of the Village testifies to the wealth and industrial prominence of the Village during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The District remains an intact example of a compact industrial-based urban Vermont center.
The heart of the Village, as represented by the Springfield Downtown Historic District, contains eight industrial buildings or complexes built on the Black River during the Village's period of greatest vigor and prosperity from 1836 to 1935.
The series of natural falls in the Black River at Springfield offered potential water power for mill sites. The industrialization of the area began in 1774 when William Lockwood settled in the village, bought land around the falls and built a sawmill near the location of the Slack chimneystack (#53) on Mineral Street. He was followed by William Griffith who built a fulling mill in 1791 near the present Lovejoy Tool Company, 133 Main .Street (#31); Samuel Lewis who built a mill, later used as a spinning wheel shop near Wheeler's Store, 27-31 Main Street (#42); and Lester Fling and Lewis and Seymour who built a gristmill on the site of the Cobb and Derby Mill, 5 Main Street (#47), in 1795. At that time the village was known as Lockwood's Mills, or Lockwood's Falls.
Isaac Fisher established himself as the father of industrial Springfield when he moved to the village in 1808 and secured most of the mill rights along the Black River, harnessing the water power to operate a cotton mill, an oil mill, a carding shop, a woolen mill, and a machine shop. His machine shop was located near the site of the Bowling Alley, 11 Park Street (#56). It was the precursor of the late 19th century machine tool factories which still dominate the banks of the Black River. His 1812 brick residence although altered, still stands at the corner of Summer and Main streets as the Tontine-Commonwealth-Sparrow Block, 30 Main Street (#10).
Other important industries established on the Black River include: The Black River Manufacturing Company (founded in 1820) which built cotton and woolen machinery at what is now 18-22-24 Park Street (#55); the Parks and Woolson Machine Company (founded in 1829) which manufactured shearing and cloth-finishing machinery at the present Parks and Woolson complex at 33 Park Street (#57): The Smith, Burr and Company which manufactured hames based on an improved hame designed and patented by H. C. Burr and Briggs Smith; Gilman and Son, established in 1854 by F. B. Gilman who invented several improvements in lathes and manufactured reverse last lathes and other lathes for turning irregular forms (The Gilman factory burned in 1981; it was located on River Street at the foot of Elm Street); The Vermont Novelty Works Company(founded in 1858), which was located near the site of the Slack chimney (#53) and manufactured toy carts, toy doll carriages, and baby cabs (baby buggies) invented by Joel A. H. Ellis founder of the company (the factory was referred to as the Cab Shop); The Cobb and Derby gristmill (1882) which stands at 5 Main Street (#47); The W. H. H. Slack and Brothers, Manufacturers of Shoddy (founded in 1875), later incorporated as the John T. Slack Corporation, a pioneer in wool reclamation that eventually produced 800 different grades of reworked wool at what was considered to be one of the largest Shoddy mills in the world (The once-extensive Mill complex is now represented by the factory at 10 Park .Street (#52), the Slack Chimneystack (#53), and the Textron plant (#54); The Springfield Marble Works, begun in 1841 by A. H. Grinnell who invented a process for polishing marble (it was located in what is now part of the Bowling Alley, 11 Park Street (#56). The Vermont Snath Company (organized in 1868) which manufactured stoves, mill machinery, and brass and iron castings; D. M. Smith and Company, established by David M. Smith to manufacture his numerous inventions, including clothespins; The Fellows Gear Shaper Company (#58), established by Edwin R. Fellows in 1896 for the manufacture of Gear Shaper and Gear shaper cutters which were produced at the plant between the Black River and Pearl Streets until 1967 when the company moved to expanded quarters in North Springfield; the Jones and Lamson Machine Company, which moved to Springfield in 1888 and built the present Lovejoy Tool Company Factory (#31) and the adjacent Community House (#30) for the manufacture of the Hartness turret lathe, named for its inventor, James Hartness, plant manager; and the Lovejoy Tool Company, an offspring of the Jones and Lamson Company, founded by Fred Lovejoy for the manufacture of small tools.
The Jones and Lamson Machine Company, the Fellows Gear Shaper Company, and the Lovejoy Tool Company are closely related by the fact that Edwin Fellows and Fred Lovejoy were both chief draftsmen at the Jones and Lamson Company while it was under the creative and influential leadership of James Hartness. As with many earlier industries in Springfield, Jones and Lamson Company provided the technical experience for talented inventors who would later branch out and establish their own companies. The manufacturing industry of Springfield gained national significance in the 19th and early 20th centuries through the growing community of inventors who settled and established industries on the Black River. Nineteenth Century Springfield produced hundreds of products for worldwide distribution, ranging from clothespins to gear-shaper machinery. It was men such as David M. Smith, Joel A. H. Ellis, Moses H. Grinnell, F. B. Gilman, James Hartness, Edwin Fellows and Fred Lovejoy who shaped industrial America. The machine tool industry which gained prominence in the later 19th century continued to dominate the local economy into the early 20th century, boosted in part by the production needs of the two world wars.
The prosperity gained through the community's manufacturing base is reflected in the quality of the architecture exhibited in the commercial district of the village. It features two of the finest Renaissance Revival style buildings in the state, as well as outstanding examples of Italianate, Colonial Revival and Late Gothic Revival architecture. The 1895 Springfield Town Library (#40) is a high style Renaissance Revival brick building embellished with well-designed terra cotta details. It was designed by architects Willard P. Adden and Russell W. Porter. Directly across the street from the library is the high style Renaissance Revival Bank Block (#12) built in 1907-08, It is the only commercial building in this style in Windsor County. Immediately north of the library is the Italianate style Woolson Block (#41) built in 1868 after designs by Montpelier, Vermont architect George H. Geurnsey. The Continental Telephone Company building at 85 Main Street (#36) is an excellent example of Colonial Revival architecture. It was designed by Edward Hunter of Hanover, N.H., and built in 1929 The First Congregational Church (#37) was remodeled in the Colonial Revival style in 1927, and the Springfield Art and Historical Society (#l) overlooking the Square was remodeled in the same style c.1917. At the foot of Main Street is the Late Gothic Revival style Calvary Baptist Church (#28) which was designed by Frank Lyman Austin and built in 1924. These distinguished buildings form important high style anchors on Main Street and document the former commercial prosperity of the Precision Valley.
Today the industrial buildings remaining along the falls of the Black River, the commercial district which owed its existence to the prosperity derived from the mill economy, the high style public buildings which reflected that prosperity and the civic pride of local residents, and the residences occupied by managers from the mills and other local professionals, combine to form a townscape that conveys a strong sense of time and place. The history of the town can be read and understood from its architecture. The historic compact linear plan of the District remains as well as its original land use pattern which logically allocated water side locations to the mills with commercial, public and residential structures flanking Main Street (and adjacent streets) which parallels the River. The District remains a primarily well-preserved example of a moderately-sized urban Vermont center. It is particularly notable for its numerous mills, its examples of high style commercial and public structures, and for its inclusion of early 20th century architecture which reflects the continued prosperity and importance of the local machine tool industry into this century.
MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
Barney, Keith Richard. The History of Springfield Vermont, 1885-1961. Springfield, Vermont: William C. Bryant Foundation, 1972.
Broehl, Wayne G., Jr. Precision Valley. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1959.
Hubbard, C. Horace, and Dartt, Justus. History of the Town of Springfield, Vermont. Boston: Geo. H. Walker and Company, 1895.
FORM PREPARED BY: Allen Hodgdon, Preservation Consultant, 47 High Street, Whitefield, NH. Tel: 603-837-2038. Date: May 1983.
DATE ENTERED: August 11, 1983
Springfield Downtown Historic District, Springfield
The Springfield Downtown Historic District (entered on the National Register August 11, 1983) consists primarily of the downtown urban core of Springfield, Vermont and abutting residences and industrial buildings. Information regarding the district can be found in that nomination The amendment adds one building the Brookline Apartment House, (#59), five dams (#60, 61, 62, 64, a 65), and a bridge (#63) to the historic district. The dams, as well as the arch bridge, are all early twentieth century concrete structures located on the Black River which runs through the district; while the Brookline (#59) is a large, 5-story, woodframe tenement that is located immediately adjacent the district (physically connected to #16) and is visually and historically related to it.
Descriptions of the individual structures are as follows (numbers refer to the enclosed sketch map.)
59. The Brookline Apartment House; 1907.
The Brookline was built in 1907 on Wall Street (then Summer Place), just east of Main Street and a short walk up from the main square of the central business district of Springfield, Vermont. Physically the Brookline marks a transition to a residential area of mainly nineteenth century single family homes across Wall Street to the east. The wood frame tenement is three stories high on the Wall Street front and five stories on the sides and rear due to the topography of the lot. The vernacular structure is a simple rectangular mass with an apparent flat roof, symmetrically articulated facades and simple applied Queen Anne and Colonial Revival detail. The building retains its exterior and interior architectural integrity with only minor alterations.
The rectangular frame structure measures 100 feet across the front and 30 feet on each side with a 68 foot rise from the ground to the eaves of the roof [?] and is set on a rubble foundation topped with brick. The apparent flat roof is actually comprised of two shallow inverted hip roofs with 5" cast iron drains at the center of each half. Two symmetrically placed brick chimney stacks rise from the tar roof which is punctuated by a trap door covering the stairwell entry from the center stairhall.
The clapboarded facade is trimmed with plain cornerboards, a molded water table, and entablature with a molded box-cornice. Sash is generally 2/1 throughout with plain trim and simple cornice cap moldings. The scale and combination of openings varies on the various facades. The 11 bay front facade is distinguished by a recessed, three level central entrance bay with balconies on the upper two levels. The principal entrance door and the upper balcony doors are comprised of a large square light above a rectangular cross panel and a pair of small square panels set in bolection moldings. Each balcony has a simple valance supported by scroll sawn brackets and is enclosed by square balusters, supporting a handrail.
The visual importance of the entrance is enhanced by two flanking bays of fenestration that are the most decorative of the front facade. The oversized 2/1 sash on the first and third stories are segmentally arched, while shingled polygonal oriel windows project from the second story.
The side facades include shingled three story bay windows above two story Queen Anne style porches. A simple deck with a balustrade rail, square newel and corner posts with turned tops lead from Wall Street to a side entry on what is the first of the upper three stories. The two story Queen Anne porches with turned posts, scroll sawn brackets and balustrade rails provide side entrances to the two lower levels. The north and south side facades vary slightly in their treatment of the lower two stories: the south side facade has a small scale polygonal bay window just below that of the upper stories, while the north end has flush fenestration. Access to the upper of the two lower levels is by stairways down from Wall Street, the lowest level is reached by stairways up from the ground. The porch on the south facade also provides access to the second story rear of the Underhill (One Church Court #16).
The west rear 5 story facade has eleven bays; the upper three stories are enhanced by a central three decker Colonial Revival porch with Tuscan columns on shingled halfwalls. Reached by paired doors from the central stairhall, the rear porches are divided in half and retain metal bases of moveable laundry trees. The lowest story beneath the porch has a central rear entrance reached by a straight run staircase built against the rubble foundation wall. Four polygonal oriel windows identical to those on the front facade project from the second and fourth stories. The fenestration of the lowest story includes a segmentally arched window on the north end of the facade, while a triple window is symmetrically placed on the south end.
The interior of the three upper stories of the Brookline is divided by a central stairhall which provides two accesses to flanking apartments on each story. The two lower levels of the building contain two apartments per floor with a central stairhall and a cellar comprising the front Wall Street portion of the plan. All of the apartments have side entrances as well, those on the upper three stories providing a service entrance to the kitchens. The upper story apartments are almost identical in plan, with the three principal rooms (living room, dining room, kitchen with pantry) across the Wall Street front, and three rooms (two bedrooms joined by a short hall with a bathroom, and the rear portion of the large livingroom) across the west rear. Apartments on the lower levels vary in plan. Livingrooms feature large segmentally arched or oriel windows, and master bedrooms on each end feature bay windows.
Interior trim includes symmetrically molded door and window surrounds with corner blocks and patera, plain baseboards, some cornice moldings, and four panel doors with two tiers of vertical raised panels and molded rails and stiles. Most trim and doors retain original natural finish. The open staircase has newel posts with square bases and turned mid and top portions; turned balusters with molded handrails further distinguish the stairway.
60. The Fellows Dam, c. 1917.
The Fellows Dam is a concrete structure approximately 10 feet high and 200 feet long. The present generating equipment was installed in the 1920s and consists of a powerhouse, gated intake structure, a vertical Francis turbine and associated generator and switchgear. The dam was built by the Fellows Corporation between 1917 and 1918 as part of the construction of a new power house during an expansion of the factory. Previous dams on the site include a 19th century dam that served a planning and sawmill. It was washed out by a flood in 1869 and replaced around that time by a dam that powered the Fellows Company 50 horsepower wheel when they began operations in 1871. No surface traces of any of the previous dams at the site are visible.
61. The Gilman Dam, c.1910.
The Gilman dam is a concrete structure approximately 7 feet high and 200 feet long. The generating equipment, installed in the 1920s, consists of a powerhouse, gate, intake structure, horizontal Francis turbine, belt driven induction generator and switch gear. Water rights at this point in the river are split between the industrial sites on each river bank. Historically flashboards were used to divert the flow on the west side of the island to the Parks and Woolson Company (1757). Those boards have not been in place for several decades. The first dam known at the site was built in 1800 to power a trip hammer shop on the west bank. Gilman and Son operated a factory on the east bank from 1854 onwards. A dam is shown on the site on Beer's 1869 map but it was washed out in the 1869 flood. The present dam's early 20th century construction date is based on its appearance, identical to the other dams in the district.
62. Comtu falls Dam; c. 1902.
The Comtu Falls Dam is a concrete dam approximately 106 feet long. It was built in 1902 and repaired in 1952 during the upgrading of a hydroelectric station on the site. Dams have stood in the general area since 1774 when William Lockwood built the first sawmill in Springfield. Beers 1869 map shows a dam a few hundred feet upstream of the present one.
63. Park Street Bridge, 1916.
The Park Street Bridge, a 76 feet long and 42.6 feet wide concrete structure rises in a semi-elliptical arch 37 feet above a ledge high above the Black River. The arch shows the marks of seven pours on the interior and is unembellished on the exterior. The roadway and sidewalk rises toward the center of the bridge while its concrete railing is approximately 3 feet high, has a cap with a beveled top surface and is paneled on both sides with alternating wide and narrow panels. There are five piers which appear to have been bases for ornamental lamps. Today only a single modern street lamp lights the bridge. A name plate on the west rail is inscribed with the date, 1916, H. P. Cummings Construction Company, Ware, Massachusetts and the engineers McIntosh and Crandell, Burlington, Vermont.
64. Slack Dam; c. 1907.
The Slack Dam is an approximately 100 feet long concrete structure. Some remnants of a former hydroelectric installation, including a headgate structure 72 feet north of the dam in the west channel bank, a penstock, tailrace, and portions of hydro-mechanical equipment remain. The dam was built in 1907 or shortly thereafter when the Slack Corporation was reorganized. It was used to generate electrical power which was used in the factory and occasionally for the electric railway which served the town.
65. Lovejoy Dam.
The Lovejoy Dam, built in c.1913, replaced earlier dams which stood in the general area since 1869 and earlier. It was originally built for the Jones and Lamson Company, which manufactured machine tools; however, in 1917 the dam was used by the Lovejoy Company, a spin-off of the Jones and Lamson Company. The dam is concrete structure approximately 15 feet high, and 150 feet long. The generating equipment, installed in 1915, consists of a powerhouse, gate intake structure, two vertical Francis turbines and associated generators and switchgear.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
The amendment to the Springfield Downtown Historic District (The original district was entered on the National Register August 11, 1983.) adds 5 dams, (#60, 61, 62, 64, and 65) a a bridge, (#63) and building, (the Brookline Apartment house #59) that have significant historical associations with Springfield and are important visual elements within the district. The dams, built during the early years of this century, are primarily associated with the machine tool industrial complexes which line the banks of the Black River in the district's core and make Springfield one of Vermont's preeminent manufacturing centers. The bridge, also within the district's preexisting boundaries and springing above a ledge and the Comtu Falls dam (#62), is an early and sizable example of a concrete arch bridge.
The Brookline apartment house was built in 1907 as part of a four building rental complex (see also #15, 16, and site of 14) owned by Charles A. Woolson the member of a prominent Springfield, Vermont family. The largest structure of the complex, it featured all of the then modern improvements,(1) was heralded as a "very desirable" place-to reside(2) and was "much the highest building in Springfield."(3) Today retaining its original architectural integrity, it is a good example of turn of the century woodframe tenement design in Vermont of which there are relatively few examples.
The lot on which Charles Woolson developed his rental complex was, until 1845, the homestead property of Moses Cobb (4), who built a house and connected out buildings c.1814 on Main Street on the site. The lot later had early connections with the Woolson family of Parks and Woolson frame, the manufacturers of cloth finishing machinery. The property passed from Moses Cobb to John Davidson (5) in 1845. Davidson was the founder of the above company with Parks in 1829. Both Parks and Amassa Woolson, father of Charles, married daughters of Davidson; Woolson became a business partner with his in-laws, and after Davidson died, both inherited this property with their wives.(6) The lot passed in 1859 to the Thompson family and the Beers map of 1869 shows the Thompson property with Moses Cobb's house, a building owned by Amassa Woolson to the north (site of the Bank Block #12), the Main Street School set back to the south (site of the Underhill #16 and the Brookline) and the Universalist Church (site of a parking lot today) also to the south on Main Street. The Thompson lot including the house was purchased by the Colburn family in 1871.(7) They also purchased the adjoining brick Greek Revival style schoolhouse in 1896. (8) Both properties were sold to Charles Woolson on January 5, 1907,(9) thus returning Davidson's homestead to the family through his grandson.
Much building activity went on in this area in 1907. The Bank Block (#12) was constructed at this time and the earlier building on the site (#13) was probably moved back to its present location.(10) Charles Woolson took advantage of the large undeveloped lot of his grandfather's by building the Underhill (#16)(11) and the Brookline in 1907 removing the school at this time. He also constructed the Roosevelt (#15) in c. 1908 on the Main Street front of the lot. It was just south of the Old Cobb House then known as the Colburn (site of #14). The Roosevelt was sold to his son, Glen Woolson, in 1910 (12), who later acquired the Underhill (#16) and the Brookline (#59). The Colburn House was also sold in 1910, to Mr. Hartness.(13) It later was torn down in the l930's after being owned by the Latchis Theater. It was replaced by a one story brick building which housed Newberry's and the A&P for many years and which was eventually torn down for the "high rise" (#14).(14)
The Brookline was noted for its modern conveniences, which included gas "quarter meters" used for cooking and lighting, a separate coal furnace for every apartment and coal stoves in every kitchen.(15) It was noted that a third floor tenant has "quite a walk to get to his heating plant"(16) and that the cooking gas pressure presented a problem in that with everyone cooking at the same time, the pressure became unsatisfactory.(17) Residents were middle class persons. Miss Cora Kathan, teacher in Springfield from 1905-1927, lived for many years in the Brookline.(18)
The Brookline remains outstanding of the complex of apartments developed by Charles Woolson in this area. It is the largest and has the most architectural integrity. The building was in continuous use as a tenement building until it was closed in 1983 to bring it up to present day building codes. The present owner has rehabilitated the Brookline, utilizing the investment tax credits available for historic structures.
The five dams (#60, 61, 62, 64, and 65) are all twentieth concrete structures most of which were built on sites associated with waterpower during the 19th century and functioned as part of the machine tool industry during this century. With the history of.Springfield intimately associated with manufacturing, they are essential and highly visible components of the village's historical industrial landscape. The dams do not posses significance as archeological sites nor do they display unusual construction techniques or design features.(19) Their significance is instead derived from their historical associations with the village and their contributions to the visual character of the community.
The Park Street Bridge (#63), built in 1916, is significant as an early and sizeable example of a concrete-arch bridge. Reinforced concrete became a commonly used material only in the first decades of the 20th century, coming to dominate short-span bridge building in the l920s and 1930s. Concrete bridges were favored because the material was cheap (consisting mostly of locally available sand and gravel) and because it made possible the arched shape which people at the time found aesthetically pleasing, especially for deep scenic gorges such as this. The bridge is also typical, at least for urban spans, in that its ornamented railing shows an attempt to achieve a distinguished, even monumental appearance (though the absence of the lights now diminished the effect.) Indeed, bridges such as this were a 20th century version of the monumental stone arches built in many cities in the Victorian period. Despite alteration, the bridge has intrinsic historical significance and also forms an important part of the late 19th and early 20th-century commercial area to the east, within the existing historic district.
Although small concrete arches could be built with a minimum of engineering and specialized construction expertise, spans of this size required professional design and erection by a contractor familiar with the technique. The building of forms in the gorge must have been especially challenging, probably explaining the selection of an out-of-state contractor who is indicated on the name plate as H. P. Cummings Construction Company Ware, Mass. The engineers were Herbert M. McIntosh and Frank H. Crandell who were city engineer and superintendent of the waterworks, respectively, in Burlington.(20)
Although a diverse group of property types, the dams, bridge, and Brookline apartment building are all significant when comprehensively considering the historic resources in downtown Springfield. The early 20th century dams and bridge, located on the Black River which cuts through the village and district have obvious visual and historical associations with the village's development; while the Brookline is a well-preserved example of tenement architecture, a result of Springfield's early 20th century industrial success.
1. Springfield Reporter, vol. 30, #43, p.4, October 25, 1907.
2. Ibid, p.4.
3. Keith Richard Barney, The History of Springfield, Vt., 1885-1961, (Springfield, VT: Wm. L. Bryant Foundation, 1972), p. 120.
4. Springfield Land Records.
9. Ibid, vol. 39, p. 142.
10. Op Cit, various issues of Springfield Reporter, 1907.
11. Ibid, vol. 30, #16, Fri., April 19, 1907, p. 1.
12. Op Cit., Springfield Land Records.
14. Interview, Walter McCarthy, Springfield, VT, Aug. 1984.
15. Op Cit, Barney, P. 114 & 120.
16. Ibid, p. 120.
17. Ibid, p. 114.
18. Ibid, p. 257.
19. Alan H. McArdle, et al, "Archeological Background Reconnaisance in the Springfield Downtown Historic District, Black River, Springfield, Vermont." Unpublished report presented to Mr. David Deane, Dufresne-Henry, Inc. Precision Park North Springfield, Vermont for the Black River hydroelectric project. Presented by University of Massachusetts Archaeological Services Water Resources Research Center, Blaisdell House, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, November 26, 1984.
20. Vermont Historic Sites and Structures Survey-Bridge Inventory Form, #WS-03, May 8, 1985.
MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES
Barney, Keith Richard, The History of Springfield, Vt., 1885-1961, Springfield, VT: Wm. L. Bryant Foundation, 1972.
Hubbard, C. Horace and Justus Dartt, History of the Town of Springfield, Vermont, 1752-1895, Boston: Geo. H. Walker & Co., 1895.
Beers, F.W., Atlas of Windsor County, Vt., New York: F. W. Beers, A. D. Ellis, & G. G. Soule, 1869.
Walter McCarthy, Springfield, Vt., August 1984.
McArdle, Alan H., et al, "Archeological Background Reconnaissance in the Springfield Downtown Historic District, Black River, Springfield, Vermont." Unpublished report presented to David Deane, Dufresne Henry, Inc. Precision Park, North Springfield, Vermont for the Black River Hydroelectric Project. Presented by the University of Massachusetts Archeological Services Water Resources Research Center, Blaisdell House, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, November 26, 1984.
Springfield Reporter, newspaper issues of 1907
Springfield Land Records
FORM PREPARED BY: Deborah Noble, Keep It Up Associates, P. O. Box 85, Concord, VT. Tel: 802-695-2507. Date: August 1984.
DATE ENTERED: September 11, 1986.