Canal Street / Clark Street Historic District
Municipality: Brattleboro, VT
Location: Canal Street / Clark Street
Site Type: Historic District
Vt Survey No: 1302-23
UTMs: (Zone 18) A. 699225/4746430. B. 699280/4746350. C.699170/4746280. D. 699120/4746360
National Register Nomination Information:
BUILDINGS IN THE CANAL STREET-CLARK STREET NEIGHBORHOOD HISTORIC DISTRICT
1. 13 Canal Street, circa 1896
Encompassing five streets, an elongated rectangle outlines the District. The northeast corner is marked by the junction of South Main Street from the southeast and Canal Street (Route 5) from the southwest. At this intersection is a parking lot bounded by Canal Street and the Whetstone Brook. This brook winds through the Town, dividing it into northern and southern sections. Within the District, the Whetstone Brook flows parallel to Canal Street to the base of Main Street, where the Main Street Bridge crosses it a the cascades. It then flows to the Connecticut River which extends perpendicular to the District along Main Street. Marking the corner of Canal and South Main Streets is the Abbott Block (#23), a three-story apartment. On the other side of Canal Street is a three-story, wood frame Queen Anne house (#1) which is situated on a ledge above the parking lot.
South Main Street, which descends southerly, forms the eastern border of the District. Two streets and a dead end earthen lane lead away perpendicularly from South Main Street to the west. Estabrook Street, a narrow, one way street, bisects the eastern side of the District and connects with the lower end of Clark Street, a C-shaped way beginning and ending on Canal Street. Lawrence Street, also a one-way route, joins perpendicularly with South Main Street and intersects with Clark Street where it makes the turn to point west along the lower curve of the street. Both Estabrook and Lawrence follow a small incline. Eels Court, a short earthen path the width of one car, meets South Main Street, centered between Estabrook and Canal Streets. It gives access to one house (#63).
The southwestern corner of the District is defined by the western bend in Clark Street. The junction of Elm and Canal Streets, just after the perpendicular intersection of the end of Clark and Canal Streets, forms the northwestern corner. Ed's Diner (#8) is the furthest building in this direction.
Another earthen right of way extends at a right angle from the paved Clark Street to the south. This road extends to the base of a steep embankment which rises to Prospect Street. The land rises sharply, beginning its ascent about 200 feet to the rear of the Clark Street properties. This area is wooded with deciduous trees, creating a protective barrier which curves around and tapers down along,the western edge of Clark Street to Canal Street. The terrain makes another sudden change on the north side of Canal Street as the grade of the land drops sharply down to the Whetstone Brook from the rear of the few buildings on that side of the street. The drop is so sheer from the edge of Canal Street that no houses were built for over 300 feet between Ed's Diner (#8) at 45 Canal Street and 29 Canal Street (#7). The cliff and brook banks are thickly vegetated. The terrain of the District acreage is level except for small inclines on Estabrook and Lawrence Streets and a gently graded entrance to Main Street, beginning at the entrance to Clark Street. Also on Clark Street, two houses (#'s 49 and 50) are raised on a small ledge.
The evolution of the District took place over a century. During this time a limited variety of architectural styles were used. Greek Revival and Colonial Revival styles were most frequently followed in their vernacular expressions. Only one building (#l) exhibits the high styling of Queen Anne detail. This dwelling has been restored to its original tri-color treatment with minor modern alterations. Another house (#50) displays an abundance of artfully applied Greek Revival details. Some form of Queen Anne detailing appears on most buildings, usually as a full width facade porch.
Except for a few isolated examples of three-story tenements, most of the structures are 1-1/2 or 2-1/2 stories in height with an array of forms and scales. While single family houses originally comprised most of this type, many have been converted to multi-family dwellings. The few outbuildings include automobile garages and barns, most likely once used for carriages, horses or domestic livestock.
Gable front, 1-1/2 story, sidehall plan is the dominant building type. Even with the large number of houses that follow this plan, there are not clusters of identical structures which would suggest workers' housing. This dominant type is varied stylistically for each house and is interspersed among other building types in the District, forming a unique and architecturally diverse mixture. This occurs on Clark Street (#'s 44-47) and on Canal Street with several vernacular examples (#'s 11-14). On Clark Street, the four neighboring houses are gable front, 1-1/2 story, sidehall plan with small setbacks and 1-1/2 story Queen Anne porches spanning the facades. The dates on the buildings range from c. 1840 to c. 1900. On Canal Street, houses date more closely between c. 1840 to c. 1855. Three of these low slung houses are 1-1/2 story, gable front with similar appointments; two of which have facade Queen Anne style porches. They were conceivably constructed by the same builder. The other house (#14) has comparable proportions but is eaves front. All the houses adhere to the same setback dimensions from the asphalt sidewalk which extends along both sides of Canal Street.
Only one ecclesiastical building is located in the District. Formerly the First Universalist Church, this building (#20) towers above the street on the lower end of Canal Street. Tightly wedged between houses on three sides, this church brought height to the domestic scale of the neighborhood in the 1850's. In 1933, the steeple was removed. Like other buildings in the District, the church has clapboard sheathing and a slate roof. Three-story tenements were later added, affirming the population and land-use density of the area. These five structures (#'s 1, 4, 23, 57 and 66) were erected between c. 1886 and c. 1911. They also tampered with the small scale of the residential buildings dominating the streetscape.
While the prevalent construction technique is wood frame, only two historic buildings and one ell are of masonry or stone construction. These are the Abbott (#23), the Cobblestone House (#19) and the long three-story apartment wing on #66. Cobblestone construction is unique to southeastern Vermont. Its popularity is concentrated in Western New York and the Great Lakes region. The white quartzite cobbles are said to have been gathered from the floor of the Whetstone Brook. Clapboard, although in a few cases replaced or covered with aluminum, novelty vinyl or asbestos siding, was favored as the predominant sheathing material. Slate was the favored roofing cover. Slate was popular in the Brattleboro Area due to the prominence of the Guilford slate quarries nearby which were active during the height of the District building construction period.
Although simplified in their vernacular appearance, design elements on these structures are for the most part retained. Exceptions are a few examples of more recent siding and altered or removed door and window surround features. New sash windows, doors and frames as well as metal storm windows and door hoods also exist in some cases. However, these buildings still fundamentally exhibit the careful workmanship of their original craftsmen and builders. The District as a whole has experienced some deterioration because of the lack of maintenance. This has created a general run down and shabby look for the area despite the presence of a few well kept houses and properties. Regardless of this condition, the architectural elements are largely intact even where balustrade and other details are missing.
The dense concentration of buildings reflects the vernacular organic planning of the District. Reinforcing this type of planning was sporadic growth. Early buildings are intermingled with later structures as land was subdivided. Small, irregularly shaped plots are typical of organic vernacular growth as are the narrow streets such as Estabrook, Lawrence and Clark. Because of this, detached buildings are close together, often leaving only a few inches between outer walls and lot boundaries. This gives the area a sense of urban neighborhood. The compactness is particularly evident in the small blocks between Canal, Estabrook and Lawrence Streets. Due to the congestion and lack of space, the setback pattern is close to the curb, or street if there is no sidewalk, with buildings facing directly onto the street. However, a few structures do have a moderate to deep setbacks, or are hidden from the street because of the irregular land division. These few have small front and side door yards. This informal plan, along with the assortment of facade heights and roof lines, results in a variegated streetscape. The lack of open space has limited the number of trees to shade the streets. Lower shrubbery cloak the houses in warm months. Dense woods surround the District to the south and west and on the brook embankments to the north.
Vernacular planning and architecture of the District make it unique, but do not isolate it from its surroundings. To the west are additional examples of vernacular houses, although larger and not as concentrated. Prospect Street, overlooking the District from the south, and South Main Street to the east, are other residential areas with comparably dated houses. On the northeast corner, new commercial development has occurred.
Of the 66 primary buildings in the District, 62 are considered contributing. Ten secondary historic structures are present. Three of the four noncontributing structures (#'s 5, 9, and 10) serve commercial purposes. #9 is a modern building. The other three buildings have been altered to the extent where their historic character has been lost. Facade changes and additions detract from original use and appearance. One, a Greek Revival commercial block (#5) has a long, restaurant wing which partially hides the facade. Another, a gable front commercial block (#10), is appended with a one-story extension. The upper stories remain intact on these two examples.
The Canal Street-Clark Street Neighborhood Historic District retains its historic and architectural integrity despite a few modern intrusions and occasional deterioration. This integrity, complemented by an array of vernacular architecture and planning, captures the essence of the Canal Street-Clark Street neighborhood residential pocket.
Descriptions follow of the individual buildings in the District. Numbers correspond to the attached map.
1. 13 Canal Street; circa 1896.
On the left bay of the facade is a three-story gable front bay window pavilion. The overhanging eaves and plain cornice are decorated with a smaller version of the scroll screen truss and gable peak stick work. The bay is canted on the lower two floors and rectangular on the third floor and is divided and outlined with plain board courses and trim. The two lower stories have paired windows separated with wide mullions on the front and narrow windows on each side. On the third tier, there are three banded windows with wide mullions. All windows have simple cornice lintels and 1/1 sash unless noted. Bands of fish scale shingles run between stories on the bay pavilion. Below the windows on the first floor are four raised panels; two in the front and one on each side. Carved consoles with small pendants hang from the base of the third story over the side canted windows of the second story bay window.
In the central bay, a small gable-roofed porch with horizontal paneling in the peak covers the entrance which is flanked by narrow pilasters with a central raised narrow strip on top of engaged blocks. The roof is supported on small square posts with new metal railings in place of wooden balustrades. Above the door on the upper two floors are single replacement windows set in plain wide surrounds. In the right bay are paired and mullioned 1/1 sash windows on all three floors. Below the window on the first floor is a sign attributing the building to William, a crayon portrait artist, dating 1896. (In 1896 when this building was constructed, the address was 3 Canal Street.)
On the east elevation in each bay below the truss and gable peak decorations are small fish scale shingled hip-roofed hoods over double 1/1 sash windows. Below the third story windows is a fish scale-shingled flared skirt that also acts as a hood to the second story windows. The same treatment appears on the first floor, creating a continuous vertical bay. Three small brackets support these skirts/roofs, alternating with the windows. The west side of the main block is divided by two bands of fish scale shingles bordered with plain board trim between the stories as a continuation from the bay pavilion. Being three bays deep, the windows are 2/2 sash and set in plain surrounds, except for the front windows on the first and second floors which are 1/1 sash.
The seven-bay, three-story hip roof ell has the first bay being of smaller 1/1 sash windows, and the others are 2/2 sash. Windows are topped with simple cornice lintels, and the overhanging eave has a plain roof line. A shed roof dormer with overhanging eaves, Queen Anne window, and two brackets in both corners below the roofline projects above the fourth bay from the roof ridge to the middle of the slope. Another shed roof dormer with two Queen Anne windows and the same bracket treatment projects from the rear roof slope. Also on the rear is an open, three-story, shed roof porch. A brick chimney rises from the center ridge of this ell. Two interior brick chimneys also rise from the center gable of the main block.
The size and the elaborate truss work gives this structure a grand appearance and makes a stunning corner for the District. The Queen Anne style ornament on this apartment building is the closest example of high style of all the buildings in the District.
2. 15 Canal Street; circa 1895.
Within the steep gable peak with cornice returns is a small four-light window to the left of the bay window. On the second floor, the bay is flanked by a 1/1 sash on the right and on the left a double sash Queen Anne with colored lights. The first floor has a 1/1 sash window to the right of the bay and a shed roof Queen Anne Style porch over the left side door. The porch has turned posts, turned valance and a turned spindle balustrade only on the right side. A hip roof, two-story porch fronts the side ell. The second story has wood board and screen, and the first story is enclosed with a central wooden door with nine light window flanked by 9/1 sash windows in the front facade. The side ell has a 2/2 sash in the gable peak. There are 2/2 sash windows in the rear bay on both floors and a double 2/2 sash window in each of the first bays. On the rear side ell is a shed-roofed, two-story porch with turned posts and balustrade with turned spindles on the open second floor and side entrance with three adjacent 6/1 sash windows on top of an aluminum-sided base. Soffits are lined with horizontal bands. The left side has a gable peak flush with the wall and 1/1 sash windows.
3. 17 Canal Street; circa 1870.
Simple molded cornice and returns accent the house. Windows are 2/2 sash set in surrounds similar to those used around the door. The single window set high in the gable peak is also 2/2 sash.
A single bay, two-story, cross gable extends to the west from the left rear of the main gable block. This ell is one bay deep with molded cornice and returns in the gable peak. There are no windows on the gable end, but there is one window on each story of the south face. A four bay, one-story gable ell extends to the east from the right rear corner of the main block. The first and fourth bays are occupied by single-leaf doors. The middle bays are 2/2 sash windows, like the rest of the house. A narrow dormer with a 2/2 sash window rises above the second bay from the left. A shed roof porch spans the length of the main block from the facade to this right (east) ell. Brick chimneys rise from the main block just off-center on the left slope and from the center peak of the one-story ell.
4. 19 Canal Street; circa 1910.
The second and fourth bays have paired windows on all three levels. Above the entry on the second floor is a Palladian type window without the elliptical light; all three sections are 1/1 sash, with a wider window in the center. The third story has a hip roof bay window resting on small carved brackets. A slightly molded continuous cornice forms the lintel for the windows. An exaggerated molded cornice with wide two-part frieze and small dentals runs along the facade and reaches two bays deep on the east and west faces of the building. At this point the roof drops just below this entablature, which is a small parapet on the sides, to a shed roof with simple molded cornice over the third rear bay. A new wooden walkway c. 1970 has been added along the right side of the building.
5. 21-23 Canal Street (Mack's Grocery/Sportsman's Lounge); circa 1850.
Sportsman's Lounge dating c. 1920 is a one-story, multi-bay flat roofed extension to the east, sitting on a cement block foundation. On the far east end is an informal wooden service dock A canted entrance opens onto the cement platform in the front of Mack's Grocery. The facade has new 8/8 sash windows and paneling. The upper paneled portion of the ell extends in front of the store-front, situated above the plate glass windows, creating an overhanging porch supported on thin metal poles.
Set in a commercially-zoned strip along Canal Street, these and adjacent lots served as a gas station and restaurant during the early decades of this century.
6. 25 Canal Street; circa 1900.
In the third tier of the facade (of which part is the parapet) the central bay is filled with shingles in alternate rows laid with staggered butts, a vernacular Queen Anne detail. Lining the top of the facade is a plain cornice with wide frieze. Above this is a centered gable peak filled with imbrecated shingles. The frieze and gable compose most of the parapet.
A two-story, two-bay deep, rear gable ell, with side brick chimney and same circa date as the main block, drops below the foundation level down the steep cliff to the Whetstone Brook. The main block joins the ell on the western face with a canted cutout in the rear left corner to accommodate an entryway to a door on the front face of the ell which extends to just beyond the western face of the main block. The eastern wall of the main block attaches to the side wall of its neighbor (#5) so that their facades are flush.
7. 29 Canal Street; circa 1870.
8. Ed's Diner (45 Canal Street); circa 1935.
The main central door is flanked on the left by a full-length stained plywood panel adjoining a pair of modern double-light windows with metal frames. Surrounding the windows is board trim, and segmentally-arched wooden valances hang over the top of the windows. The door has a large metal handle and a square window in the upper half with single panel above and two similar panels below. To the right of this door is the same window treatment in a wider bay with two windows separated with a plain board overlaid mullion. Below the windows, the south and east faces are covered with stained plywood panels with applied thick x-motif stickwork in a lighter color; the rear face is sheathed in plain plywood.
On the eastern end, which is two bays deep, in the first bay is a double-light modern window like those on the facade. In the second bay is a larger window of the same type. Below this sliding service window is a counter braced with wooden 2x4 boards. This counter is part of an outdoor eating area to the right of the diner. Attached to the east end of the diner, and almost the same in length, is a wooden deck, c. 1955, for sitting and eating, with three tables and built-in benches along the railing. All outdoor furniture is made of 2x4 wood boards. Half of the front railing is open, providing access to the deck.
The vestibule on the western end has a central entrance door on the facade. This full length door, which is similar to the open door, is flanked by plywood panels accented with vertical board trim. The western face has four small windows closely arranged in a line; three with four lights and one with two lights. All have wood frames and mullions, unlike the rest of the windows which have metal frames. Below the windows on the western face is plywood with board trim but no x-motif stick work.
Two pipe chimneys with cone caps stick up from the main vaulted roof. A square detached chimney, slightly tapered on top, extends from the lower wing above the roof line of the street-level block; it is attached with thin metal braces to the rear of the main block. There are no steps to the structure, except for a barely raised door stoop, as it sits on the sidewalk level. Just under the roof line the rakeboard is dotted with white lights encased in small circular opaque plastic covers. A modern square light is centered above the main door on the vaulted block. The interior has tiled floor and a long counter with stools. A modern electric sign rises above the diner on thin, metal posts. Another wooden painted sign sits on top of the vaulted roof facing the street.
9. 52 Canal Street; circa 1930.
10. 48-50 Canal Street; circa 1865.
The extension has plate glass windows, a garage bay, a single pedestrian doorway flush with the facade, and a diagonally recessed triple door on the main block. A shingled pent roof spans the extension and the main block above the first story storefronts. The building and the side extension have a deep setback from the street to allow for an asphalt parking area.
11. 46 Canal Street; circa 1840.
12. 44 Canal Street; circa 1840.
A rear one-story gable wing attaches the main block to a barn On the west face of the wing are four bays filled with 2/2 sash windows, except the second bay which has a door topped with a small shed roof hood. The two-story square barn has a slate hip roof with overhanging eaves, topped with a central square cupola also with hipped roof. The cupola is decorated on each side with an arched vent and topped with a wooden finial. The barn and cupola also have cornerboards.
13. 42 Canal Street; circa 1840.
A 1-1/2 story rear gable wing joins a clapboard 2-1/2 story barn with slate roof, aligned perpendicular to the rest of the dwelling. The barn has two large windows, one centered in each of the first two stories, and a small window in the gable peak on the eastern gable end. This barn may have served a storage function or as a place for domestic livestock.
14. 40 Canal Street; circa 1855.
A rear one-story gable roof ell joins flush with the left side of the building. Along the west face of the ell, which is three bays deep, are 6/6 sash windows. This ell attaches to a 1-1/2 story, steep, ~able front barn with slate roof. This barn, also dating c. 1855, is sheathed in board and batten siding.
15. 36 Canal Street; circa 1860.
A recessed Queen Anne style porch runs half of the gable front block and has turned posts and brackets. The rear of this block has a door and two windows on the west side wall. It conforms to a sidehall plan in the rear, including a door with triple-light transom and an interior end gable peak chimney. From the middle of the east slope of the gable front block, a narrow gable dormer with its own small flat-capped chimney holds one 2/2 sash window. Another ell, a gable-roofed two-story structure to the rear (built concurrent with the rest of the house), which joins flush with the main block on the west face, has a small one-story gable roof ell with overhanging eaves on the rear, also flush with west face. Windows on these rear ells are 2/2 sash except for a few replacement 1/1 sash.
Another member of the community, William A. Conant, lived in this house from 1860 until he died in 1890. Conant, who manufactured violins by hand, earned great distinction and renown for his wares.
16. 32 Canal Street; circa 1830.
A seven-bay, two-story rear gable ell joins flush with the west face of the building. This structure, which has a slate roof, clapboard sheathing and a brick foundation dates c. 1830. The ell has similar 2/2 sash windows and surround treatment, but the windows are longer than those of the main block and the fenestration on the first floor is not even with the seven bay count of the second story. A small rear gable peak window has six lights. A two-story porch, made of wide wooden board and metal screens ranges along the left side of the ell. The shed roof of the porch extends directly from the east gable slope of this rear ell. To the rear of the long extension joins a wood frame, gable front, board and batten barn with large hinged outward-swinging doors on the rear. This barn, which has a sagging slate roof, is deteriorating with missing floor and wall boards. Most likely built c. 1845, shortly after the construction of the house, this barn may have originally served as a horse barn, as suggested by the wooden stall division and upper bay loft inside. Currently it serves a storage function.
17. 26 Canal Street; circa 1850.
18. 22-24 Canal Street; circa 1830.
A small, narrow, gable roof dormer asymmetrically divides the facade as it sits just to the right of center, low on the front eaves slope. The dormer has a slate roof, clapboard sides, and a small 9/9 sash window. Two large interior chimneys are unevenly placed on the peak; one to the left of center and the other centered in the right half of the roof. The building sits on a brick foundation.
A long gable ell attaches the house to a garage. Backing the main block from the east corner to the wall of the rear ell is a shed roof, Queen Anne style porch with turned posts and tiny brackets. The porch shelters three 2/2 sash windows next to a door, near the inner corner. Another door is placed in the corner on the east wall entering into the ell. From the gable peak rises a central brick chimney.
A long one-story garage is attached on a small angle pointing diagonally to the south facing Clark Street. The shed roof with asphalt covering slopes down to the rear. Unlike the rest of the dwelling, which is sheathed in clapboards, this garage has novelty wood siding. Constructed c. 1925, this four-bay community garage has paneled and glazed outward-swinging hinged doors with eight lights in the upper half of each leaf and vertical board paneling on the lower portion. The doors are almost full length with some horizontal boards separating them from the roof line. A small window with two sliding lights and simple sill is centered in the southern face of the garage.
18A. Garage (22-24 Canal Street); circa 1925. Similar to the garage attached to #18, this community garage has five bays and is located to the rear of #18 at the southeastern corner of the property. This c. 1925 shed roof garage is also sheathed in novelty siding and has asphalt roof covering. The five paneled and glazed outward-swinging hinged doors have eight lights in each leaf. The doors open onto Clark Street. The garage replicates exactly the attached garage behind which it sits. However, it has an additional bay.
Typically found in densely populated areas, multi-car "community garages" provided rental income for the owner. The two garages on this piece of property, totalling nine spaces, facilitated parking in the area which has little yard or driveway space. The crowded narrow streets made on-street parking virtually impossible.
19. Winslow Ward House (Cobblestone House), 12 Canal Street; circa 1850.
A low-slung, one-story rear gable wing joins the cobblestone block to a two-story gable front house, also dating c. 1850, oriented perpendicular to the cobblestone block. This small slate roof tenement wing, added shortly after the construction of the stone building, and which cuts into the second floor windows of the cobble block, is sheathed in clapboards with a wooden door next to three successive 1 / 1 sash windows in plain surrounds. Speculated to be a former barn, this wing attaches to a gable front house which faces onto the lower end of Clark Street. The upper third of the house is shingled and the rest is clapboards. Centered on the second floor are two adjacent 2/2 sash windows. A hip roof porch with three turned posts spans 3/4 of the facade starting at the right cornerboard. A small gable with recessed panel marks the entrance on the far right with a wooden door and a twelve-light window. A bay window with 2/2 sash and clapboard base fills the rest of the porch. The outer wall of this ell closely abuts the neighboring piece of property.
Although estimated at an earlier date of 1826, the Cobblestone House was most likely built later, c. 1850. The lack of windows on the east wall implies that the closely neighboring church, which was built in 1850-1851, was taken into consideration in the design of the Cobblestone House. Its first owner, Winslow Ward, owned a shoe store in the old Estey pump and pipe shop on the Whetstone Brook in 1846. This house represents one of two documented examples of cobblestone architecture in Vermont. This kind of construction was common in western New York and in the Great Lakes region. The origin of the stones used in this house is unknown. The abundant farmland in Brattleboro was a possible source, but more probably, the cobbles were collected from the nearby Whetstone Brook.
20. First Universalist Church, 10 Canal Street; circa 1850-1851.
The decoration is contained for the most part in the central bay, which is defined by narrow board trim--the same used for the cornerboards and baseboards. A narrow strip of stick applique, formed with two horizontal boards filled with vertical slats, spans the central bay bisecting the second story. An identical band aligns the base of the main gable peak. Between these two bands sits a blind round window with recessed vertical board paneling. In the gable peak, atop the band, is situated a small 1/1 sash window. Two heavy cutout brackets make the transition into the steeple base, which has three panels of stick work on each face: diagonal boards embracing a panel filled with vertical boards. The first floor windows are smaller than the second story side windows and are rectangular with 1/1 sash clear glass panes set in the same surrounds used on the other windows. In the first bay before the side additions is the same window treatment as on the facade with one window on each floor on both sides.
A gabled door hood with slate roof covers an enclosed central entrance. The hood has an inverted T-shaped brace and is supported by two elaborate and heavy stick brackets with trefoil cutouts and front carved pendants. The one-story enclosed entry has clapboard siding and double leaf doors with four-light windows and paneling in the lower half. This enclosed portion provides a vestibule guard against the cold weather.
Narrow, slightly shed-roofed, two-story, four-bay additions dating c. 1871 run along the west and east sides of the building, extending to the rear facade. Although two stories high, the roof slopes of the additions originate below the cornice line of the main front gable. The taller second stories of the additions are sheathed in clapboard. The first floor walls are constructed of brick. A narrow door with a stone lintel, on both side additions, faces the street to the north. There is no fenestration on the second floor front of the additions. Taller second story side 4/4 sash windows consist of textured clear glass panes set in plain surrounds with projecting sills. The top pane of these windows is pointed in the same shape as the surrounds.
Constructed in 1850-1851 for the Universalist Society, this building, although now restored to its religious usage as the Agape Chapel, performed a non-sectarian role as meeting place and home to a Grange organization for many years. The body of the church has experienced changes including side extensions to accommodate the growing membership in 1871 along with some facade alterations and the removal of the steeple in 1933 in anticipation of the conversion to a Grange Hall.
21. 6 Canal Street; circa 1850.
22. 4 Canal Street; circa 1870.
Like the main gable peak, the peak of the cross gable ell has trefoil cutout vergeboards. On the gable end of the ell is a polygonal bay with three 1/1 sash windows in each floor and a skirt of slate separating the stories. A door on the north side of the ell opens onto the porch. A narrow single bay gable wall dormer extends from the middle left side bay of the main block, intersecting but not breaking the cornice and overhanging eaves seen in the rest of the house. Below the dormer is a small round window. In the left side first bay, first story, is one 1/1 sash window. Behind the dormer is found an exterior end brick chimney with corbeled cap.
23. The Abbott (2 Canal Street); circa 1911.
Blond brick veneer covers only the east and north public faces of the building and red brick veneer sheathes the hidden rear facade and the west side. The blond brick makes the transition with wide quoins on the northwest and southeast corners. The building is a block shape with a central recessed portion eight bays wide along the facade, totalling fourteen bays across the front and three bays deep for the entire structure.
The raised basement floor conforms to the sloping site and reaches its lowest point on the east face where the store is located. The storefront has large recessed plate glass windows facing the street on the east and north. Three narrower windows face Canal Street (north) and two large windows flanking a recessed entrance face South Main Street (east). The north and east faces have a full entablature with a wide stone frieze and a narrow brick parapet band running along these faces. On the west face, the parapet is a continuation of the brick veneer wall. There is no entablature band which forms the top rim of stepped tablets which are centered on the east face and on each of the three facade sections. Flanking the central facade stepped tablets, but situated below in the frieze, are two projecting square stone blocks with central cutout section; each is resting on a stone bracket. An elaborate central entrance is reached by a large, wide double cement staircase with brick veneer and iron railings. The door has Classical Revival details including stone panel pilasters supporting a segmental pediment complete with keystone and the name of the building inscribed in a panel above.
A stone string course defines the top of the basement level and a thinner course runs just below the window line of the third floor intersecting the stone sills. All apartment windows, unless noted, are recessed 6/1 sash. The second and seventh bays of the central facade recessed portion are occupied by smaller sash windows with stone lintels. The windows sit on stone sills with flush brick flat arches above. On the west and rear sides, all window openings have similar brick arches.
On the east and west faces, a central, deeply recessed porch punctuates each floor. On the east side, they have stone sills and brick lintels, like the windows, except for the second story porch which has a blind, round arched pediment of cross hatching bricks and a stone keystone. On the west side, the porches also have stone sills but no lintel decoration. On the inner wall of each porch is a small 1/1 sash window.
On the rear, the fenestration is uneven, but the windows also have arched openings. A rear central service bay rises above the roofline and is camouflaged with brick parapet resembling chimneys. Today the building accommodates fifteen 1-2 bedroom apartments and one occupied commercial space at street level on the east side.
24. 71 Clark Street; circa 1883.
The building conforms to the grade of the land to the rear. The clapboard sheathing runs down low to the brick foundation, forming a broad continuous surface, not broken by a base board. On the south face, there are three windows on the clapboard foundation level and three on the first story.
25. 67 Clark Street; circa 1860.
25A. Garage (67 Clark Street); circa 1930. A flat-roofed, one-story garage with asphalt shingles sits close to the house (#25) to the north. It has two bays across the front with full length, double leaf, outward-swinging doors, which open directly onto Clark Street. There is no setback. The wooden doors have an X-stick design in each leaf. The structure is centered with wide wooden horizontal novelty siding.
26. 59 Clark Street; circa 1920.
The gable ends have simple molded cornice and returns, and the eaves overhang on the front and rear. Cornerboards are crowned with simple molded capitals. The second story facade windows are 6/1 sash set in plain surrounds and framed horizontal louvered shutters, except the window in the left bay above the entry porch which has no shutters. Shutters are also found surrounding the two first floor facade windows, which are larger 8/2 sash. On the west gable end, there is an 8/2 sash in the gable peak and three 2/2 sash windows on the first and second floors. There is no window in the first bay of the first floor. The eastern face, which has two 6/1 sash on the second floor and paired 4/1 sash in the gable peak, is enhanced on the first floor story by a flat roof sun porch. Simply trimmed with cornerboards, the porch sits on a lattice base and has aluminum siding on the lower wall and bands of 6/6 sash windows on all three exposed sides. There are two windows on the front and six on the east face. The house has one brick chimney on the peak just off-center. The structure is set upon a simulated concrete block foundation.
27. 55-57 Clark Street; circa 1890.
The two-tiered shed-roofed porch covers the right two bays, and in the third, far left bay, is a two-story bay window. The porch has a flat roof, Queen Anne style turned posts, plain rail and balusters, and small, simple cutout brackets. Replacement metal posts support the wooden floor of the porch which is reached by cement steps on the front right corner. Two doors open onto the porch from the front wall of the house. One leads to the first floor apartment and the other to stairs for the upper dwelling. On the second tier, only one door, on the left side of the porch, opens onto the balcony. The two-story, flat-roofed, canted bay window intersects the porch so that part of the west side of the porch on both floors is cut diagonally from the building facade to the front corner of the bay. The porch railing extends further forward, making a right angle at the post. This wide bay projection has one 1/1 sash window on each face.
On the east side of the building is one window situated between the first and second floors, indicating the staircase behind it. A 2-1/2 story cross gable extends out a single bay to the east. The ell, which is two bays deep, has an overhanging eaves. There are two windows on each floor and one centered in the gable peak. This ell joins the main block with a canted wall. The soffit is slanted up with horizontal paneling, filling the diamond shaped section. Two windows on each floor are located on this canted wall. On the west wall of the main block is the end of the cross gable, running flush with the main block. Before the side gable peak on the left face (west) of the main block is one window on each floor. Beneath the gable peak are two bays of windows on each floor before the extension of a flat roof, two-story ell. On the front inner bay in the corner of this ell, and running two stories to the west, is a recessed bay with a single entrance on the first floor. A balcony is on the second floor with plain rail balusters. In the second bay is a 1/1 sash window on each floor, and in the third bay on the first floor is a single door with plain board trim. From the roof over the third bay projects a rectangular box-like structure sheathed in clapboards, perhaps an entrance to the roof. From the roof of the main block rises a center peak brick chimney.
28. 51 Clark Street; circa 1890.
All have plain surrounds with square projecting sills and a flat lintel with small square projecting top ridge. On the sides, first story windows are 1/1 sash and other are 2/2 sash.
On the rear of the east roof slope rises a shed roof wall dormer that extends from the ridge of the gable roof. This dormer has a single wooden door reaching from the roof line of the dormer down the wall of the building, interrupting the eaves line only for the width of the door. A sliding horizontal double-light window flanks the door on the left above the eaves line.
A two-story rear gable wing joins flush with the left side of the main block. Three bays deep, this wing has a two-story cross gable ell to the east with plain roof line and no overhang. From the roof of this ell, off peak to the left, is a center brick chimney. Another center peak chimney rises from the main block. This east ell is narrow with no windows on the east gable end and two doors on the front (south) face. The doors are single leaf and aligned in the same bay; one on each story. The second story door is isolated and cannot be used as a passage since there are no steps or landing to accompany it. The first story door has a platform to the left with steps. The entire structure has a brick foundation base.
29. 47 Clark Street; circa 1855.
A two-story gable wing attaches to the rear of the house. The west sides of the main block and the wing are flush, and the gable slope is the same pitch as that of the main block but a little lower. On the east face of this wing, there are two 6/6 sash windows on the second floor and two 1/1 sash on the first floor. Another shorter single bay gable front wing attaches to the rear of the first wing. From two extensions extends a simple shed roof porch, with square posts, that runs to the east along the length of the two wings. Two brick chimneys rise from the slate roof of the main block; one from the front right slope just off the peak and one rear interior chimney from the peak. A brick foundation supports the whole structure.
30. 43 Clark Street; circa 1885.
Situated to the east, attached to the house by a small extension, a 1-1/2 story, is a gable front carriage barn with plain trim and detail. A small double light window is situated high in the gable peak and a square door of wood panels is found above the left bay. The two carriage bays are open. Two progressively smaller shed roof wings extend to the east keeping flush with the facade. The barns and attached wings are sheathed in clapboard and have slate roofs. The first wing has a full length paneled outward-swinging door. Most likely this structure was built the same time as the main house, c. 1885.
31. 33-35 Clark Street; circa 1910.
32. 31 Clark Street; circa 1850.
A brick chimney rises from the center, just off-peak to left on the main block. On the main block west side, a full length brick foundation, conforming to the sloping grade of the property, is exposed, with two blind windows and one door bay. On the other sides of the house, the foundation appears to be made of cement.
A one-story porch extends two bays deep along the east side where it meets a shed roof extension in the third bay. On the front of this small extension, which terminates flush with the rear facade of the main block, is one 2/2 sash facing onto the porch. The porch roof is supported by three columns with simple caps joined by plain railings filled with square balusters. The porch is enclosed by full-length screen with thin vertical wood supports, with a short lattice skirt below. On the inner wall is one 2/2 sash window and a door with a triple-light transom. An additional lower shed roof wing extends off of this rear wing to the east. Facing the street (south) on this smaller wing is a single full-length door. Another two-story shed roof ell extends to the west off the rear of the main block, with a center rear brick chimney.
33. 21-27 Clark Street; circa 1870.
The right block is also a gable front 4x1 bay plan with a slate roof. This 1-1/2 story clapboard block has an exposed clapboard basement story, unlike the left block, due to the changing grade of the site; the off-center entrance is accessed from this basement level. Situated in the second bay from the right, this door has plain board surrounds. There are two windows in the gable peak. A carved and cutout bargeboard decorates the pronounced overhanging front gable roof line. As the other block, a center peak brick chimney rises from the roof
A two-story, five-bay shed roof wing extends from the center of the east side of this right block. Surrounding this wing on the south and east is a two-tiered, wrap-around, flat roof porch with Queen Anne styling in its turned posts, cutout brackets, turned spindle balustrade on the upper level and plain square spindle balustrade on the lower level. The third and fifth bays on each tier accommodate single door entrances. Backing this wing to the north rises a modern, clapboarded, two-story, slate-roofed ell c.1920, spanning the length of the wing and extending just beyond the end of the porch to the east, barely touching the street as it turns around the house. This long ell is flush with the rear wall of the right block. On the east end are paired 2/1 sash windows in plain surrounds. On the rear (north) facade, there are four 2/1 sash windows, unevenly spaced in the second floor and three on the first.
34. 17 Clark Street; circa 1840.
34A. Garage (17 Clark Street); circa 1925. In the southwestern corner of the lot, situated close to the rear of the house (#34), is a c. 1925, wide gable front, two-car garage sheathed in aluminum siding. The left bay has an overhead paneled door with a row of square single lights. The right bay has a pair of outward-swinging full-length doors with eight lights in the top half of each leaf and vertical wood paneling in the lower half. The structure measures two bays deep with 2/2 sash.
35. 82 Clark Street; circa 1840.
35A. Garage (82 Clark Street); circa 1920. This small, steeply-pitched gable front, wood frame garage with slate roof and plain overhanging eaves sits to the south of the house (#35). The full-length diagonal matchboard outward-swinging doors with iron strap hinges face east. The two bays on the north face of this clapboarded outbuilding are filled with large sash windows. This garage was added considerably after the house, c. 1920.
36. 80 Clark Street; circa 1860.
37. 78 Clark Street; circa 1855.
38. 76 Clark Street; circa 1855.
39. 72 Clark Street; circa 1910.
39A. Garage (72 Clark Street); circa 1930. A small shed roof garage, accented with cornerboards and sheathed in clapboards, with full-length overhead door, is found at the end of the driveway. This garage was built after the house c. 1930.
40. 70 Clark Street; circa 1900.
The first two-bay, two-story gable roof ell with asbestos siding, joins flush with the rear facade of the main block. The eaved front roof attaches just below the overhang of the gable peak of the main block. The overhanging eaves of this ell hides the plain lintel of the second story 2/2 sash windows. The first floor is recessed one bay deep the length of the ell, with windows facing north and east and a door on the third side entering into the gable end of the main block. A steep shed-roofed second one-story ell extends from the rear of this section of the building to the west. It extends further than the western wall of the rest of the structure and has overhanging eaves.
The eaved front roof of this first ell continues with slight swelling along the seam where it ties into another two-story clapboard wing. In this ell, despite the irregular fenestration, all windows are 2/2 sash in plain surrounds. Four bays long on the first floor, a single door in plain surrounds topped by a gabled hood occupies the first bay. In the third bay is a double leaf outward-swinging, full length, wood panel barn door flanked on either side by a 2/2 sash window. Two windows are located in the second and third bays on the second story. In the fourth bay, dropped to just above the barn door bay, is a 3/ 4 length wood panel door. The fenestration of this wing suggests that it may have served some sort of agricultural or storage function.
The fourth 2-1/2 story rear ell has gable front roof. Like the third ell, this furthest ell is sheathed in clapboards. In the gable peak, with plain overhanging cornice and returns, is centered a six-light window in a plain frame. This top gable portion flares slightly over the narrow second tier, which also has a centered six-light window. The first story is tall, compensating for the second tier, with short shed roof that extends from the upper facade. This upper facade is set back since the length of the lower portion is flush with the facades of the rest of the structure. Two sets of tall, full length, wood paneled, outward-swinging doors range the length of this shed roof section. In the top of each leaf is a horizontal, triple-light window.
By the time this residence was built, most of the once agricultural land in the area had been developed. Despite the presence of two ostensible rear barn wings and the similarity of this structure to a typical New England connected farm building, much barn space was not required. These rear two extensions probably served as a workshop or as a place for horses or livestock.
41. 60 Clark Street; circa 1910.
42. 58 Clark Street; circa 1910.
43. 56 Clark Street; circa 1900.
The basic plan of the house is gable front with an intersecting cross gable, a slate roof, and a center peak brick chimney on the front gable. The gable peaks have molded cornices and returns. The first story is sheathed in clapboards, and the upper stories are covered in plain square shingles. The facade has an asymmetrical gable which continues on the right slope, forming a smaller gable to cover a right-bay, recessed entry porch. The front porch gable, which projects beyond the facade, has molded cornice. The gable peak is filled with fish scale shingles. The porch has a bold turned spindle balustrade and grouped Doric columns on paneled pedestals. The wood floor, with wide wooden front steps, is wrapped in a lattice skirt. On the wide band between the columns and the front (north) side is found a carved applique decoration. On the rear wall of the porch is a single entrance door into the house.
The first floor facade is canted under the overhanging second floor on the east front corner. Above a 1/1 sash window on the overhang are two carved brackets and a pendant. The other canted side with one 1/1 sash window is sheltered by the porch. A large 1/1 sash window occupies the front face on the first floor. All windows, unless noted, are new 1/1 sash set in frames with plain sills and slightly molded lintels. On the second floor facade is centered a pair of 1/1 sash windows. Above this in the peak is centered a pair of small 6/1 sash. This same feature appears in the other gable peaks except on the porch. On the east side of the front gable is one 1/1 sash window on the first floor only.
The cross gable ells are one bay deep and two bays wide with two windows on each floor. On the west gable end is a small single-light window centered on the upper part of the wall on the first story directly below the change in sheathing material. Filling the corner made by the west gable and the rear of the main gable block is a one-story porch that joins flush with the west wall. It has a small metal roof gable on the southwestern corner facing west; the rest of the shed roof is also metal. The porch is supported on two turned posts and unusual cutout brackets. There are wooden steps and a lattice skirt. A brick foundation supports the building.
44. 54 Clark Street; circa 1850.
All windows, which are 2/2 sash unless noted, hang in plain surrounds. There are two windows in the front gable peak. Windows fill the bays on the right (west) face. An east cross gable runs flush with the side of the main block. Two bays deep and occupying the second and third bays on the east side, this gable has two 2/2 sash windows in the gable peak and a modern triple light on the first floor. Like the front gable, there are corner pilasters, molded cornice and returns, and overhanging eaves. On the east side, a one story porch attaches to a rear ell. The porch has aluminum-sided base wall on top of a lattice skirt. The shed canopy is supported on plain posts and two dimensional brackets. Also attached to this rear ell is a low, flat-roofed garage, c. 1900, sheathed in aluminum siding which has outward-swinging, full-length, wood panel doors opening to the east.
45. 50 Clark Street; circa 1840.
Resembling its gable-roofed, 1-1/2 story neighbors (#'s 44, 46), this shallow-pitched, gable front, wood frame house facing north onto a small front yard and Clark Street differs in that it does not follow a side hall plan. Rather, it measures four bays across the front and has an entrance in the second bay from the left. The entire structure is sheathed in clapboard and sits on a concrete block foundation with a slate and metal roof. A long narrow brick chimney is centered on the left slope of the main block. A plain cornice and returns line the front gable peak, but a full entablature with wide frieze ranges along the side eaves originating at corner palisters with a narrow vertical recessed strip.
The c. 1840 residence has a single-story shed roof porch with metal spanning the facade. This porch is supported on four square columns, with side treatment resembling pilasters, and bold capitals. Two engaged columns appear at the end of the porch. The pilaster decorations have a narrow vertical recessed strip down the middle like that on the corner pilasters. A simple balustrade of square stock members borders the wooden floor
All windows, unless otherwise noted, are 2/2 sash and set in plain board surrounds; the lintel having a small projecting top squared ridge. The four bays deep on both sides, and the two in the gable peak of the main block follow this form. A one-story rear gable ell, barely visible from the street, attaches to a rear garage extension c. 1930, with two bays facing east. These wide bays have overhead garage doors with paneling and a string of small square windows along the upper portion.
46. 48 Clark Street; circa 1900.
A flat-roofed, one-story, full-width facade Queen Anne porch has a small setback from the sidewalk. The wooden floor porch has turned posts, two of which are engaged at the ends of the wall; small cutout designs on either side of each post, similar to brackets; knob valance; spindle balustrade; and a lattice skirt. Concrete steps lead to the front porch entrance that is marked by two short knobbed posts. The door is flanked by fluted pilasters and topped with a blind paneled transom, which is also bordered by the pilasters. Cornice caps rise from the pilasters. All visible windows are 2/2 sash set in plain surrounds. The lintel has a small square top ridge and the sill projects slightly.
46A. Barn (48 Clark Street); circa 1930. Set far back from the street to the rear of the house (#46), a deteriorating wood frame barn sits on the southwestern corner of the property. Oriented with eaves front, the slate roof has a sagging peak. Sheathed in wood novelty siding, this 2-1/2 story structure has two open garage bays facing north.
47. 46 Clark Street; circa 1885.
48. 42 Clark Street; circa 1880.
A single-story, shed roof porch, covered in slate tiles, ranges across the facade of the east gable front block, sheltering the left side hall entrance. Replacement metal pipe posts support the roof, and only one simple bracket remains, attached to the left side of the door. Another single leaf enhance is situated on the far right, last bay of the western eaves front section and is set in surrounds.
49. 40 Clark Street; circa 1900.
This tall, unusual, gable front house dating c. 1900, features recessed porches under the right half of the gable. On the first floor, the porch roof with simple but full entablature is supported on two plain square posts. A plain square stock member balustrade rings the porch with an opening at the left side, close to the center of the facade. There is a door on the inner side of the porch facing west and opening into the left half of the house. On the wall of the house, shielded by the porch, is a pair of new 1/1 sash windows in plain surrounds facing north. The second floor porch opening also has square posts and the same balustrade as below. Framing and spanning the facade, the porch is a recessed arch. A smaller arch with simple keystone on the west side of the porch joins flush with the west facade. To the rear of the porch on the west side, the gabled-roofed house extends five bays deep with 1/1 sash on both floors.
The gabled peak has a molded cornice and returns, and a Palladian window motif minus the elliptical cap. All the windows are 1/1 sash in plain board trim. Centered in the left half if the second floor are two 1/1 windows, and below on the first floor facade is a tripartite window band with diamond pane sash. On the east side projects a two-story, canted bay window with 1/1 sash and a shed dormer with diamond pane sash. Around the perimeter of the house, the second story flares slightly over the first story walls. From the rear corner of the roof stems a small gable structure with sloping shed roof. On top of this roof sits a structure with peaked roof aligned with and to the west of the main peak. Three sides have been removed for a recent deck with squared balustrades and railing, accessible to the third floor.
50. 38 Clark Street; circa 1840.
All windows are 2/2 sash, set in plain surrounds with projecting sills and lintels with small squared top ridge. There are four windows, two on each floor, in the gable ends. Facade windows in the first story on the east side are flanked by wooden louvered shutters. A one-story gable ell extends from the southwestern corner of the main block. Also having clapboard sheathing and a slate roof, this ell does not join flush with the western wall of the main block so that one window faces the street (north). The gable line of the ell intersects the side gable peak of the main block where the fascia board meets the cornice. This ell does not have a molded cornice or corner pilasters, rather it has a plain, slightly overhanging roof line and cornerboards. Facing east, a rear garage attaches to the ell with a flat roof and double, vertical, wooden-board, outward-swinging doors.
51. 34 Clark Street; circa 1880.
52. 30 Clark Street; circa 1830.
A two-story, single bay deep, rear gable ell joins flush with the north face of the 1-1/2 story main block. The roofline rises above the main block and has a plain cornice without returns. A one-story gable ell extends perpendicularly to the south from the southeastern corner of the main block. Unlike the rest of the house, which is sheathed in clapboards, this ell has vertical exposed wood panel siding. From the rear southern corner of the two story ell extends a barn wing, added later than the rest of the structure, c. 1890. The eaves front barn is sheathed in clapboards with a one-bay, full-length, wood panel door, and is visible from the street poking from behind the front one-story side ell. Extending south from the front right corner of the facade is a wooden slat fence delineating the property and obscuring a full view of the house. All roof surfaces, including all extensions, are sheathed in slate, and a center peak brick chimney rises from the rear of the main block. A cement foundation supports the structure.
53. 28 Clark Street; circa 1860.
Two wings attach to the rear of the main block. A small, square double-sash raking window squeezes between the roof and the slopes of the front gable block and the first wing on the rear wall of the front block. A pent roof section across the front north side shelters an enclosed porch. The porch has an aluminum-sided base that runs flush with the wall of the main block, a short lattice skirt, one square post support, a screen door and windows. The second wing, also one-story but with a hip rather than a gable roof, leaves narrow, single light raking window on the rear of the first wing. This wing serves as a garage with an overhead square-paneled door with a row of square single lights. A pent roof extends from below the eaves on two sides; the north and east, joining flush with the north wall of the first wing. A full-length pedestrian door is situated next to the garage bay to the right. The roof pitches of the two rear wings are steeper than that of the main gable.
54. 16 Lawrence Street; circa 1850.
54A. Garage (16 Lawrence Street); circa 1930. Parallel to and behind the rear wing of #54 is a small gable front garage facing east. This single bay structure has novelty siding, asphalt shingle roof, and an overhead paneled door. It was probably added c. 1930.
55. 15 Lawrence Street; circa 1850.
55A. Garage (15 Lawrence Street); circa 1900. Also property of #55 in the far northeast corner is a 1-1/2 story, gable front garage added c. 1900. Sheathed in aluminum siding and having plain board trim, this single bay structure has outward-swinging and hinged vertical wood board doors. In the gable peak is a small vertical double-light window. This garage is approached via a long earthen driveway.
56. 18 Clark Street; circa 1840.
A two-story, cross gable ell to the south has Greek Revival trim, including cornice returns and corner pilasters. There is a one-story, three-sided bay window below the two windows on the second story. This gable ell is one bay deep. A rear 4x2 bay, two-story wing attaches to the main block, more than doubling the length of the house. A two-story recessed portion cuts into this block on the southern face where it meets the main block. On the first floor, this recessed space acts as an entry way and, on the second story, it serves as a porch with plain railing and square balusters. This rear wing was probably added later, c. 1860, and has no Greek Revival detail nor plain board trim, only plain surrounds. On the end of the rear gable ell is a flat roof garage facing south. This double bay structure, c. 1905, has one full-length, outward-swinging vertical wood paneled door and one overhead door with four adjacent square single lights.
57. 16 Clark Street; circa 1900.
58. 14 Clark Street; circa 1845.
A one-story metal hip roof Queen Anne style porch runs from the main gable facade to a cross-gabled extension on the northern face. This 1-1/2 story extension is two bays wide and one bay deep with molded cornice and returns. Unlike the front gable peak, this peak does not have a wide fascia board. Centered at the base of the cross gable on the foundation level is a wooden bulk head. The porch roof covers most of the entablature on the north side of the main block. A single door opens onto the porch from the cross gable.
In typical Queen Anne style, the porch has turned posts, cutout scroll brackets, spindle balustrade, and one short knob post. As in the front entrance, the porch is reached by granite steps to the north. The floor is wood and a lattice skirt trims the bottom.
From the rear of the main block extends a 3x1 bay gable ell with a rear door, also with granite steps. A double-bay shed roof dormer projects near the intersection of the rear wing and the cross gable on the left roof slope. In the corner made by the rear wing and the cross gable is a small flat-roofed, one-story single bay addition with one single-light window facing north. The structure has one brick chimney just off-peak to the left at the rear of the main block. The structure has a brick foundation and slate roof.
59. 14 Estabrook Street; circa 1840.
59A. Garage (14 Estabrook Street), circa 1940. In the eastern corner of the property is a gabled front garage with wood novelty siding and an asphalt shingled roof. There are two bays in the front accommodating two cars and one 6/6 sash window on each of the east and west faces. This building was added considerably after the house, c. 1940.
60. 9 Estabrook Street; circa 1840.
61. 15 Estabrook Street; circa 1940.
62. 6 Clark Street; circa 1850.
A 2-1/2 story rear gable wing with slate roof extends to the east, aligning flush with the left side of the main block. A shed roof dormer with double-light sliding sash window extends from the roof peak. A shed roof one-story porch occupies the corner between the main block and the wing. The porch has plain square posts, a board base, and two cutout brackets against the wall. The porch shields a door and a long horizontal window to the right. From the roof of this wing rises a brick chimney off peak. A two-story exterior stairway, added c. 1930 to the rear gable end wall of the wing, has a shed roof reaching to the top of the gable peak. This structure is supported on thin wooden square posts and has a landing sheathed in clapboard.
63. 9 Eels Court; circa 1880.
64. 10 South Main Street; c. 1870.
A single bay gable front dormer surmounts the porch roof which aligns flush with, and extends to the end of, the left slope of the gable and also flush with the south face of the main block. The dormer is almost as deep as the porch and has overhanging eaves. There is only one window on the facade of the dormer, a 6/1 sash, the same as the rest of the windows on the house. All windows are set in simple wood frames.
A gable wing joins the rear of the main block but follows the same axis. A left side shed roof porch spans the length of this wing and has Queen Anne details similar to those in the front porch. A horizontally-placed sash window is squeezed between the top of the shed roof and the cornice line in the corner close to the joint with the main block. A rear exterior staircase, partially covered near the entrance, attaches to the end of the wing. Another shorter and smaller wing joins the first extension to the garage. This smaller portion has a tar shingled roof with a door and one window on the left side. The garage faces the street and aligns perpendicular with the rest of the house. The west side face of the garage is situated close to the end wall of the next house. This low-lying gable front structure, c. 1930, has an overhead door, facing the street, with a row of five adjoining single-light windows. A side entrance door and an exterior chimney are found on the right (cast) side. The other chimney in the house rises from the center peak of the first ell. The garage has the same asbestos siding as the rest of the residence, a tar-shingled roof, and a centered rear window.
The entire building rests on a cement foundation which increases in height towards the rear of the building. A small door punctuates the lower level on the right side of the main block as a cellar entrance. A low slate and sod wall surrounds the building at the foundation level on the right (north) side. A delicate wrought iron fence, with simple pattern, marks the property around the small front yard and around the left side of the house to the driveway.
65. 14 South Main Street; circa 1870.
The two-story porch extends the length of the facade. The porch has a flat, slightly overhanging roof. Three Queen Anne style turned posts divide the porch on both levels. The lower story porch has been covered with board on the lower half and modern windows on the upper half. A wide wooden band separates the two porch stories. The upper story has similar boards but has screens, three between each post, divided by thin wooden pieces. A lattice skirt trims the bottom of the porch. The building sits on a brick foundation. A rear gable wing attaches flush with the south face of the front gable block. The fenestration is irregular and on the rear (west) gable end are wooden steps. These run parallel to the wall and reach a single door in the gable peak.
66. 3 Lawrence Street; circa 1860.
From the rear of the gable block extends a long Colonial Revival flat roof apartment complex to the south. Each of the eight bays on the front facing the parking lot has paired 1/1 sash windows. The overhanging cornice is slightly molded, as are the window cornice lintels. The front is sheathed in aluminum siding and the other three sides are covered in stucco. On the second story is a recessed porch with turned spindle balustrade and paired columns on squared pedestals. The first floor is open under the porch, which is supported on big carved brackets. Centered on the first floor is a pedimental entrance with recessed elliptical panel. On the north end of the ell, which is stucco, are wide arched, recessed balconies on two floors. On the rear west face are nine window bays on the second story and an incomplete row of windows on the first story. The windows, some paired and some single 1/1 sash, have plain sills and narrow molded cornice lintels. This section is set upon a cement block foundation.
Projecting side and front, two-story, flat-roofed additions extend to the east. The upper story is sheathed in novelty vinyl siding and the lower floor has aluminum siding. These wings sit on a cement foundation. Fenestration is irregular and there is an assortment of windows~ some 1/1 and others 2/2 sash. There is a bay window and a recessed entrance on the south side and another entrance facing east. The east side entrance has a double leaf door with flat-roofed door hood. Supporting the hood are chamfered posts and carved brackets. Most likely this is the original entrance to the historic Italianate block.
First settled in the early 1800's and expanded until 1935, the District's organic development and resident composition during the nineteenth century was driven by an overall settlement and local land subdivision pattern taking place in Brattleboro's East Village and local and regional forces which transformed the adjacent Downtown from a rural to thriving commercial/industrial center. Natural features which circumscribe the District have also contributed to its configuration and density. The Whetstone Brook is to the northwest, slope to the southwest, and Prospect Hill to the southeast and northeast.
A different set of forces in the twentieth century brought absentee ownership, multifamily conversions, different household origins and composition, modification of architectural and building styles and intrusions to the dimensional scale. Recent interest in and concern for the area has begun to reverse the District's fortunes, and the ambiance of the nineteenth century is starting to reassert itself.
Physical Features and Characteristics of the District
The 62 primary historic and ten secondary historic structures in the District were built between about 1830 and 1935 and exhibit architectural styles which, conveyed in vernacular interpretation, include Greek Revival, Classical Revival, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne and Colonial Revival. With the exception of one ecclesiastic structure (#20) and two commercial structures (#'s 6 and 8), all historic buildings are presently residential. The ten secondary historic structures are garages and storage sheds added to the rear of residences during the early twentieth century. Residential buildings are typically 1-1/2 stories with gable front orientation, brick foundation, clapboard sheathing and slate roof, interspersed with more substantial 2-1/2 story homes. Attached barns are surviving features of seven structures (#'s 12, 13,14, 16, 19, 30 and 40). Asbestos, aluminum and weatherboard siding, asphalt roofing and replacement windows have been added in some cases, but have not measurably altered the overall architectural styles and details. One (#19) of the sixty residential buildings was constructed of cobblestones, one of two documented building compositions of this type in Vermont. Only four buildings in the District, three commercial (#'s 5, 9, and 10) and one residential (#66), are noncontributing. Three of these structures have noncontributory status because of alterations (#9 being modern).
Historic and Architectural Cohesiveness of the District
Origins and Events in the Historical Development of the District
The physical development and residential composition of the District evolved in response to, and as an integral part of, commercial and industrial growth and organic settlement and land subdivision patterns taking place in the East Village core and area as a whole. Water power above the Whetstone Brook falls to operate mills and factories, accessible transport utilizing the Connecticut River and later the railroad, and a remarkable array of diverse entrepreneurship were the principal stimuli for this economic growth. Demand for housing near places of business and employment resulted in increasingly dense settlement pattern. Proprietors and workers settled in the District and lived there until the early twentieth century, setting its tone and character. Physical circumscription and maximum use of available buildable land formed its unique cohesiveness and compactness.
A. East Village Economic Growth and Settlement, 1750 - 1850
The second quarter of the nineteenth century saw an insurgence of industrial activity in the East Village, stimulated by new manufacturing technology, nationwide demand for an increasing variety of consumer and other goods, and access to material and markets provided by steamboat transport on the Connecticut River. (The railroad came to Brattleboro in 1849.) Manufacturing activities materially contributing to this growth were paper and paper-making machinery (Samuel Foster, 1828), stationary steam engines and boilers (John Gore, 1832), furniture (Anthony Van Doorn, 1829), harness and trunk maker (A. Worthington, 1830's), machine shop (Thomas and Woodcock, 1833), rule and levels (Stearns and Company, 1833, to be acquired by the Stanley Company in 1870 and moved to New Britain, CT, forming the nucleus of that tool company), and lead pipe, pumps and later organs (Jacob Estey, 1847). These manufacturing enterprises developed primarily between Canal Street and Flat Street along the Whetstone Brook and between Mill (now Arch) Street and Bridge Street abutting the Connecticut River. At the end of Mill Sheet was the flat boat and later steam boat landing. A growing number of commercial businesses along Main Street provided goods and services. The Revere House and Brattleboro House on Main Street between Flat and Elliot Streets and Elliot and High Streets, respectively, maintained room and board for travelers and workers alike.
Cabot (II, 595) states that at the height of this above activity the East Village in 1844 had a population about 1,500 persons, "was of the distinctly rural type, rows of wooden buildings on the main street being used for business and in part for private purposes". However, the 1850 census count of 3,816 for Brattleboro as a whole suggests that her figure is somewhat underestimated. The Town's population experienced a dramatic increase of 1,193 persons from 1840.
Settlement of the East Village responded to these forces by first growing linearly, following principal stage roads - High Street to the west, Main Street to the north and South Main Street to the south - and then more organically, particularly within the Flat, Elliot and High Streets area, as land was subdivided and streets laid out to accommodate the rising number of varied proprietors, workers and labors making up an increasingly diverse occupational and employment base. Canal Street, named after the canal constructed adjacent to the Whetstone Brook and running north through the District, was laid out later, but prior to c. 1845.
B. District Settlement Pattern, 1800 - 1850
Clark Street, named after Joseph Clark, was laid out between c. 1845 and 1852; the longer east/west leg and eastern north/south leg abutting the above houses and interior lots to their north and west, respectively. In addition to providing more conventional passage, Clark Street accessed to the north the undeveloped rear portions of long rectangular lots from Canal Street and buildable areas to the south. Additional known recorded District houses were built on these new lots at mid-century (#'s 29, 32, 36, 37, 38, 44, 50, 53, 55 and 62). Lawrence Street was constructed during this time, abutting existing houses to its north and south. And Estabrook Street, named after J. H. and W. H. Estabrook, dealers in tinware and stoves, was also built midway and running parallel to Canal and Lawrence Streets. Houses were erected to its north and south. Further infill of the same magnitude does not occur in the Clark Street/ Canal Street portion of the District until the last quarter of the century, suggesting that the then owners preserved a semblance of suburban space. In contrast, the area, bounded by Clark, Canal, South Main and Lawrence Streets, became more compact and urban-like, largely from the Estabrook Street bisection.
The District and the East Village exhibited the basic street configuration of the present day.
C. District Residential Composition and Services, 1800-1850
Settlement brought Methodist preaching services and a Universalist presence in the 1830's. The latter first held meetings at Wheeler's Hall, since demolished, located at the corner of Canal and upper Clark Streets (the site of #9, 52 Canal Street built in 1930) and later established the first Universalist Church on Canal Street in 1851 (#20, now 10 Canal Street), the original site of the Methodist Church, erected c. 1835 - 1837. A neighborhood school (No. 3) was also built during this period at the southwestern corner of Clark and Canal Streets. The present day Canal Street Elementary School was built c. 1893 in the same location. The new school's design may have been influenced by the renowned New York architectural firm of McKim, Mead and White. William Rutherford Mead was the brother of the sculptor Larkin Mead; the Meads being a prominent Brattleboro family.
D. East Village Economic Growth and Settlement, 1850 - 1900
Escalation of industrial and commercial activity took place in the East Village core area, as in many similar New England towns, in large part to the development of a regional network of rail lines (the railroad coming to Brattleboro in 1849) which provided reliable transport and access to an increasingly expanded supply and market area, and more locally, to new construction spurred by the fire of September 4, 1857 which destroyed 16 buildings; the Whetstone Brook flood of October 3, 1869 which washed away all bridges and structures at the base of Main Street; and, the fire of October 31st in the same year which destroyed all buildings between Elliot and High Streets. New bridges, factories and the Brooks House and Crosby Block, with their commercial and residential uses, were built and transformed Cabot's 1844 Downtown from a bucolic rural to a bustling commercial center. Railroad tracks laid along the Connecticut River effectively isolated the downtown from this earlier transportation link, and a rail freight yard soon took over most of the land south of Bridge Street.
One major consequence of the 1857 fire and 1869 flood was the relocation of J. Estey's organ manufacturing facility to a more isolated and higher ground 60 acre site in 1870. Three successive buildings had been destroyed; The first by the fire, a second by an individual building fire of January 6, 1864, and the third by the flood. The new facility, comprising eight primary 3-1/2 story buildings, spurred the development of the surrounding Esteyville neighborhood where many employees resided.
New or expanded businesses developed in the area during this period included Vinton's Paper Mill (acquired in 1847), New England Family Sewing Machine (Charles Raymond, 1859), Brattleboro Melodeon Company (1867), Brattleboro Manufacturing Company wooden furniture (1869), and J.B. Randall and Co - knitting machine needles (1876). Cigars, organ reeds and children's toys were also produced. By the 1870's, Brattleboro's role as a regional commercial and manufacturing center was well established.
Residential development and street expansion occurred within the originally settled area of the East Village, but outside the Main Street core, and in adjacent undeveloped or less densely populated areas as demand for housing increased. Flat Street, north of the Whetstone Brook and running parallel with Elliot Street, was extended between 1856 and 1869 to Birge Street, and houses were built on the north side after 1869. Prospect Street, south of the District and on Prospect Hill, was laid out and built up during the same period. Elm Street, formerly a path, was constructed to connect Flat and Canal Streets. One major exception, the J. Frost Estate, or "Frost Meadow", with residence at the east end and factory at west end, extending for considerable acres and bounded by Birge Street and the Whetstone Brook to the south and Flat Street to the north, remained undeveloped into the next century. This expanse was interrupted by one two acre parcel just west of Elm Street where the Cottage Organ Manufactory stood (built by J. Estey in 1866 and operated simultaneously with the Main Street factory).
E. District Settlement Pattern, 1850 - 1900
F. District Residential Composition, 1850 - 1900
Proprietors of businesses located on Main Street or elsewhere noted were: C.E. Barrett of 32 Canal Street, manufacturer of paper and special machinery; Issac K. Allen of Estabrook Street, I. K Allen and Company; Frank Bassett of Clark Street, harness and trunk repair; and, C. B. Dickinson of 7 Clark Street, fancy and domestic baker. In addition, a number of the workers listed were employed by the Estey Organ Company. The Directory notes, as in the 1850 Census, that boarders were fairly common. The District during this period was firmly established as a distinct residential neighborhood providing housing for persons engaged in a multitude of commercial, retail, manufacturing and service activities.
G. East Village Economic Growth and Settlement, 1900 to the Present
By 1930, many of the manufacturing activities in the Downtown and about the Whetstone Brook had disappeared. The noise, dirt, smoke, size, trucking and fossil fuel power generation associated with 'modern' industrial facilities made this location unnecessary and unsuitable. The Depression, post-World War II national manufacturing and distributional trends and an increasing service-orientation regional economy brought the East Village's role as a manufacturing center to an end.
H. District Settlement Pattern, 1900 to the Present
The four multistory apartment blocks erected in the early 1900' set the stage for the prevailing residential type of the present century. Three of these apartments were built in the northeast end of the District adjacent to the active industrial and commercial core (#4, c. 1910; #23, c. 1911; and #57, c. 1900). Building #'s 4, and 23 have vernacular Classical Revival detail; and, #57 is a plain structure with a few vernacular Queen Anne details. The fourth (#42), a 3-1/2 story stucco apartment block with vernacular Queen Anne and Colonial Revival detail, was built c. 1910 on the south leg of Clark Street, affecting somewhat the harmony of scale and style in that area. The Abbott Block (#23) is particularly significant in its massiveness and total brick construction. The Block brought an urban quality not found elsewhere in Brattleboro. Although contrasting to the predominant scale of earlier buildings, the adherence of these apartment buildings to venacular period styles maintained the District's overall architectural cohesiveness.
One additional multifamily structure built just to the southwest of the present District boundary deserves particular mention. Leslie Smith, a carpenter and builder with offices at 28 Flat Street, acquired 70 Clark Street (#39) from C. H. Eddy in 1903 and resided there until c. 1915 when he moved to 38 Putney Road. Smith split the rear portion of the lot (now outside of the District), comprising the slope from base to the top of Prospect Hill, and constructed c. 1918 on the embankment an eleven unit brick three story apartment building with access to Prospect Street at the top and to Clark Street at the bottom. An exterior stairway connecting both streets was built immediately west of the structure. The property was conveyed to Charles Miner in 1922, who expanded the number of units to sixteen. A gas-related accident in 1932, the Town at that time being served by gas lines, resulted in the death of two residents and the building being condemned. The property was conveyed to Clarence W. Reed in 1934, with Smith retaining salvage rights, and the building was demolished in 1935. A number of present day residents remember the structure and its imposing presence over Clark Street.
During the 1900's, more than 60% of the former owner-occupied dwelling structures were converted to multifamily rental residences, echoing the trend taking place in other residential areas near the commercial core. Rental units attracted a new population, and the District gradually evolved into a more disparate socio-economic neighborhood.
Preservation and Restoration Activities in the District
The Neighborhood Group sponsors District projects such as clean-up, house painting, and planting and has engendered a new sense of pride and community in the area's residents. This same sense of restoration is also evident in those buildings which have been maintained as single family residences, many purchased by young families or professionals interested in returning to a more pedestrian and neighborhood-oriented way of life. In addition, the District's fortunes are such that appreciably altered buildings and new structures, those with noncontributory status, are located at the periphery. Consequently, these do not detract from the character of the area, nor compromise the overall historic and architectural integrity of this unique neighborhood.
The District Compared to Other Local and State Areas
Similar historical development of working class neighborhoods took place in response to burgeoning commercial and industrial centers in other nineteenth century Vermont towns such as Barton (Crystal Lake Falls Mill District), Bellows Falls, Bennington, Burlington (Winooski Falls Mill District), Barre, Rutland, Springfield, Windsor and St. Johnsbury. Neighborhoods in these communities also witnessed change in residential tenure and physical deterioration during the twentieth century. And many of these neighborhoods, like the District, are being turned around by housing groups, neighborhood organizations and persons committed to a renewed feeling of community, preservation and life style of an earlier era.
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DATE ENTERED: July 7, 1993.
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