Lewis Grout House
National Register Nomination Information:
Set in a residential area along the main street through West Brattleboro village, the Lewis Grout House together with a connected barn and a detached garage occupy an informally landscaped street-corner lot. The c. 1880, one-and-three-quarters-story, clapboarded house of Gothic Revival style carries a steeply pitched, asphalt-shingled cross-gable roof with a deeply overhung cornice along all eaves. Each facade possesses a prominent two-story gable with a stickwork screen at the gable peak. The fenestration displays pyramidal arrangement, and the upper-story openings are crowned by triangular-arched hood moldings. A three-bay, flat-roofed porch with cruciform posts and stickwork balustrade distinguishes the five-bay main (east) facade. An original five-sided bay window emerges from the three-bay south facade while an added rectangular bay window marks the north facade. An elongated one-story, gable-roofed rear (west) kitchen and shed ell connects the main block and the contemporary, south-offset, one-and-one-half-story, clapboarded carriage barn. The barn's gable roof carries a cross gable only on the front (east) slope above the double-leaf, diagonal-boarded vehicle doors. A louvered, fully cross-gabled cupola surmounts the ridge intersection, echoing the decorative treatment of the house's gables. Sited at the north edge of the grounds, the c. 1925, one-story, one-car, clapboarded garage has a simple gable roof; double-leaf, diagonal-boarded vehicle doors enter its east gable facade while a Gothic Revival door (removed from the house) enhances its south facade. Now in excellent condition, these buildings retain historic integrity of location, setting, design, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.
The Lewis Grout House is situated in a residential neighborhood of substantial houses adjoining on the northwest the business and civic center of West Brattleboro village. The house stands in the northwest quadrant of the intersection between the main street, Western Avenue, and Bonnyvale Road. A primary two-lane highway (Vermont Route 9) with heavy traffic, the paved surface of Western Avenue has been widened to the extent that it has encroached on the front (east) grounds of the house. In contrast, Bonnyvale Road has remained a relatively narrow paved road, leaving the south grounds largely intact. A paved driveway curves from Bonnyvale Road to serve vehicle entrances in both the rear ell and the carriage barn connected to the house.
The grounds surrounding the house are generally landscaped in an informal manner with cultivated lawns and scattered shrubs. Several mature and younger deciduous trees (pin oaks) standing along the streets provide shade for the east and south grounds. A single coniferous tree (blue spruce) interjects contrasting form and color near the barn's south facade.
The north grounds were planted during the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a relatively formal garden. Period photographs of the garden show what appear to have been exotic species of flowering plants such as yucca. Subsequently that garden has reverted to lawn with dispersed shrubs including lilacs and, toward the rear, apple trees.
The detached garage is sited next to the north edge of the north grounds, both apart from the house and deeply recessed from Western Avenue. Reflecting the lack of vehicular use, a driveway serving the garage has mostly-reverted to lawn.
Constructed about 1880, the main block of the Grout House rises one and three-quarters stories above a low brick foundation. The house is sheathed with clapboards over a structure that apparently combines post-and-beam and balloon framing. Boxed corner posts are visible in three rooms on the first story but none on the second; the unfinished attic reveals balloon framing.
Narrow corner boards ascend from the water table to support the relatively broad frieze that follows the deeply overhung molded cornice along all eaves. The four gable peaks share common decorative treatment; narrow vertical boards with sawtooth lower ends (and cut-out trefoils between the teeth) cover the wall surface behind a screen of slotted stickwork with a pointed-arch valance and central pendant.
The high cross-gable roof slopes at an extraordinarily steep pitch. It has been shingled with asphalt in place of the original wood shingles. An interior brick chimney rebuilt c. 1989 straddles the south ridge near the cross. An original balancing chimney on the north ridge was removed at the same time above the level of the roof.
The main (east) facade presents to Western Avenue a symmetrical design with a central entrance surrounded by window bays arranged in a pyramidal manner. Only the five-bay first story extends the full length of the main block below the truncated horizontal eaves. Centered on the facade, the three bays of the second story occupy the base of the gable while the single third-story bay punctuates the gable peak.
Sheltering the central entrance and one bay on each side, the three-bay porch was enlarged c. 1908 by the addition of a single bay on each side of the original one-bay counterpart. The added components replicate the original ones. The slender cruciform posts rise from paneled pedestals linked by a balustrade made of interlocking stickwork to a blind valance with applied cross-braces. Above the deeply overhung molded cornice of the porch's flat roof, a perimeter balustrade matches the first-story counterpart. Projecting outward from the central bay, the exterior open-string steps descend to ground level; their original matching balustrades were replaced c. 1953 by simpler versions with vertical stick balusters and ball-headed chamfered newels. A diagonal lattice skirt encircles the porch.
The central entrance retains the original single-leaf, hinged door with a single light complemented by alternating tiers of single and double panels. (A recent metal storm door protects the main door.) The smooth door surround is surmounted by a molded cornice cap. The paired flanking bays are fitted with the two-over-one sash (plus one-over-one metal storm sash) prevalent on the house. Only the first-story openings are crowned by cornice caps while the louvered wood shutters are common to all stories.
The second-story fenestration differs in several respects. The central bay is occupied by coupled slender one-over-one sash; these are crowned by coupled high triangular-arch hood moldings with flush-boarded spandrels. The single outer bays of standard two-over-one sash are topped by matching hood moldings. On the third story, the single window repeats the latter treatment.
The fenestration of the south facade is also arranged in a pyramidal manner. Its most distinctive feature, an original five-sided bay window, emerges from the right side of the three-bay first story. The bay window is illuminated by slender one-over-one sash, coupled in the central face and crowned by cornice caps. The spandrels are decorated with applied cross-braces. A deeply overhung molded cornice encircles the eaves of the bellcast roof. The other two first-story bays have single sash like those on the main facade. At the base of the gable, both bays of the second story contain coupled slender one-over-one sash with triangular-arch hood moldings like the central bay of the main facade. The single bay at the gable peak also matches its counterpart on the main facade.
The opposite (north) facade differs from the south facade only on the two-bay first story. Replacing an original entrance, a three-sided rectangular bay window was installed c. 1930 in the right bay. This bay window is lighted by triplet small two-over-one sash on the central face and a single sash on each side above the clapboarded spandrels. A deeply overhung cornice follows the eaves of its shed roof.
The rear (west) facade is exposed only on the two-bay right (south) side adjoining the west ell. A secondary entrance with a four-panel door (plus a metal storm door) occupies the right-center position, sheltered by a one-bay, screened southeast extension of the ell's south porch. The right end of the porch abuts a one-story, one-bay, clapboarded appendage with a shallow-pitched hip roof. This appendage lacks an exterior entrance (other than a brick and wood bulkhead sheltering a subsurface one into the basement); a standard two-over-one sash lights its west side. On the main block's two upper stories, the central bays are fitted with the only twelve-over-twelve sash in the house.
The interior of the main block possesses a Georgian plan. central stair hall forms a front-to-rear (east-west) axis on both the first and second floors. The rooms flank the hall in each quadrant on each floor. Additionally, the original sewing room (converted during the 1910s to a bathroom) occupies the second-floor space at the front of the hall between the front bedrooms.
The stair hall represents generally the four main rooms on the first floor in terms of the finish materials. The floor was relaid probably during the 1920s or 1930s with narrow tongue-and groove hardwood boards. The wide baseboard carries a cap molding. The doorways are enframed by heavy molded surrounds. The walls are plastered and papered while the ceiling has been sheathed with fibreboard. Abutting the right (north) wall, the open-string stair ascends in a straight flight to the second floor; it incorporates heavy turned newel posts, turned balusters, and a molded hand rail.
The two parlors flank the hall in the front (northeast and southeast) quadrants of the first story. Their floors (like those in the northwest and southwest rooms) were also relaid with narrow hardwood boards but only in a band around the perimeter of each room. The band surrounds a rectangular area of original medium-width softwood boards that is concealed by a carpet; the hardwood boards are laid parallel with each wall to form a rectangular pattern that frames the carpet.
Both the doorways and windows in the parlors have heavy molded surrounds like those in the hall. Distinguishing the south parlor, a nearly full-width trabeated opening was made probably c. 1920 in its rear (west) wall leading into the living room in the southwest quadrant; a Tuscan column supports each side of the opening. The original door with four molded panels, remains in place between the south parlor and the hall, and two others remain in the living room.
The doorways into the north parlor from the hall and the dining room in the northwest quadrant were also widened probably contemporaneously with the trabeated opening; each has paired, fifteen-light French doors. The three other doorways in the dining room retain single-leaf, four-panel doors, including two without moldings.
On the second floor, the four corner bedrooms share finish materials with the exception of the flooring. Only the southeast front bedroom retains the original softwood floor boards of medium width. The other three bedrooms display the narrow hardwood boards laid throughout the first story. The walls are generally plastered and papered while the ceilings are plastered and painted. All four bedrooms share baseboards, with simple cap moldings, plain door and window surrounds except for single beads along the inner edges, and doors with four raised panels.
Attached to the north half of the main block's west facade, the mostly clapboarded rear (west) ell contrasts with the main block by its elongated one-story, gable-roofed form. An interior brick chimney straddles the ridge of the asphalt-shingled roof.
The ell's north eaves facade aligns with the north facade of the main block, and extends seven bays in length. An entrance with a four-panel door occupies the right-center position while the other bays are fenestrated mostly with two-over-one sash.
The south facade is subdivided into a three-bay right (east) half marking the kitchen on the interior, a central open vestibule bay, and two garage bays on the left side. The right half is entered by a central four-light-over-two-panel door flanked by two-over-one-sash. A three-bay, screened porch with chamfered posts spans this half; its shallow-pitched hip roof is covered with sheet copper. The garage bays on the left side are entered by a smooth overhead door on the right and double-leaf, vertical-boarded, hinged doors on the left. (The latter oak-framed doors were made c. 1989 by Earl Stark, a local craftsman who has done much repair work on this house, to replace deteriorated predecessors.)
On the interior, the kitchen differs somewhat in finish materials from the rooms in the main block. Beadboarded wainscoting sheathes the lower walls to a level slightly above the window sills. The upper walls are plastered while the ceiling has been refinished with gypsum board. The floor has been overlaid with linoleum. The door and window surrounds are plain except for a single bead along the inner edges.
The southwest corner of the ell engages the northeast corner of the larger-scaled carriage barn to provide an interior passage between the two blocks. Most of the ell's west gable facade is concealed by a one-story, two-by-one-bay, clapboarded wing that is attached also to the barn's north gable facade. Covered with corrugated sheet metal, its shed roof slopes downward from the barn's north facade. The shed's two-bay north facade is entered by a four-light, vertical-boarded, hinged door in the center closely adjoined on the right by an eight-light horizontal fixed sash. A former chicken coop, this wing has been adapted to a private library.
Constructed probably at the same time (c. 1880), the carriage barn echoes to a notable extent the design of the house's main block. The clapboarded barn rises one and one-half stories above a mostly brick foundation. The steeply pitched gable roof possesses three gables of equal scale; a transverse gable interrupts the front (east) slope while the rear (west) slope lacks a corresponding feature. A frieze and deeply overhung cornice like those on the house follow all the eaves, but the gable peaks are decorated only with short pendants. The roof has been covered with asphalt shingles in place of the original wood shingles.
Straddling the cross of the roof, a ventilating cupola of square plan echoes on a small scale the design of the house's roof. Above the vertical-boarded base stage, a rectangular louver ventilates each face below a gable decorated like those on the house. The asphalt-shingled, cross-gable cap repeats the cornice and gable screen forms of the house.
The three-bay main (east) eaves facade is dominated by the central transverse gable that shelters the main entrance. The latter consists of double-leaf, two-panel, hinged doors made of diagonal flush boards Directly above the entrance, a twelve-over-twelve sash with louvered shutters lights the gable. The side bays on the first story are fitted with twelve-light fixed sash and lack shutters.
Facing Bonnyvale Road, the south gable facade is punctuated on the left half of the first story by three small one-light stall windows. A twelve-over-twelve sash with shutters occupies both the south and north gables. The rear (west) eaves fašade displays an irregular four-bay arrangement. nine-light, vertical-boarded, hinged door enters the left-center position, flanked by twelve-light fixed sash.
The interior of the barn retains three box stalls for horses in the southwest corner of the ground floor. The central drive floor was rebuilt about 1957 with poured concrete. The barn now is used primarily for storage.
Garage; c. 1925
Oriented parallel to the house's west ell, the one-story, one-car, clapboarded garage rests on a concrete foundation. A molded cornice follows the eaves of its asphalt-shingled gable roof.
The vehicle entrance occupies most of the main (east) gable facade. It consists of double-leaf, two-panel, hinged doors made of diagonal flush boards and enframed by a plain surround.
The two-bay south eaves facade includes a pedestrian entrance in the right bay. The distinctive Gothic Revival door has twin vertical triangular-arched lights over a slender horizontal molded panel and twin rectangular panels at the bottom; the original etched glass has been replaced by clear glass. This door was removed c. 1930 from the right bay of the house's north facade when the bay window was added in that position. The left bay of this facade is lighted by a two-over-two sash with a plain surround.
Photographs taken about 1900 show the house probably in its original appearance. The most obvious difference from the present involved the front porch; then it consisted of one bay sheltering only the main entrance, and the balustrade on the projecting steps matched that on the porch deck. Atop the wood-shingled roof, metal cresting extended along each ridge with a pinnacle at each gable peak. The twin interior brick chimneys possessed both corbeled bases and caps.
The west ell differed on its south facade by having only one vehicle entrance on the left half. A vertical-boarded exterior sliding door existed in the right position in place of the present overhead door while the left bay held a twelve-light fixed sash in a clapboarded wall.
The barn also appears to have been crowned by metal cresting along its roof ridges and pinnacles above the gable peaks. Its south gable facade was fenestrated on the first story only by a twelve-light fixed sash in the left-center position.
The grounds were enclosed along the perimeter by a wood fence. It incorporated slender vertical pales of alternating shorter and taller height fastened to two horizontal rails.
The Lewis Grout House meets National Register Criterion C in the area of Architecture for embodying the distinctive characteristics of an extraordinarily late Gothic Revival style house constructed about 1880 for the Rev. Lewis Grout, a Congregational cleric and missionary who may have participated in its design. Furthermore the house may reflect the stylistic influence of British colonial architectural design in South Africa while Grout served there as a missionary during the middle 19th century. Contextually within Vermont, the Grout House relates to the influence of the Gothic Revival style on residential design and to the statewide context, Historic Architecture and Patterns of Town Development. The house ranks as one of the most belated among the limited number of examples of Gothic Revival residential architecture in the state. The related vernacular one-car garage built c. 1925 also holds significance in Architecture under Criterion C for being an excellent representative of its type and period among the declining number of unaltered examples in Vermont.
The choice of Gothic Revival style for residential design in Vermont never approached its popularity for religious buildings. Churches began to display at least rudimentary Gothic features by the 1820s, and numerous examples appeared throughout the state during the second quarter of the 19th century. In many cases, Gothic features were applied to what were essentially Greek Revival churches. The same blend of styles eventually spread to houses; both Greco-Gothic and more fully developed Gothic expressions were built in relatively small numbers especially during the 1850s and 1860s. Thereafter the more sophisticated High Victorian Gothic emerged in religious architecture, and other styles had already swept into residential fashion. The restrained Gothic Revival character of the Lewis Grout House was markedly retardataire by the time of its completion about 1880 and represents probably the personal religious interest of its owner rather than the contemporary public preference.
The shift from horse-drawn t o motor vehicles in Vermont accelerated during the latter 1910s and 1920s. The essential incompatibility of sheltering both automobiles and livestock in existing barns brought the need for suitable garages. The latter were usually sited apart from other buildings to reduce the risk of fire. Often devoid of decorative treatment, the typical one-story, one-car, gable-roofed garage from that period possessed a gable-facade vehicle entrance with double-leaf, hinged doors. The c. 1925 garage adjacent to the Lewis Grout House exemplifies this detached type that remained dominant in Vermont until about 1940. Furthermore, this garage has been spared the alterations, such as replacement overhead door(s) that have been made to most contemporary garages in the state.
A different house is known to have stood at 382 Western Avenue prior to the late 1870s. Photographs taken during the 1860s and 1870s record on the site a one-and-one-half-story, clapboarded eaves-front, gable-roofed house probably of the Cape Cod type. That house belonged to one Abner Adams from 1856 onward and then his widow Rhoda by 1869. The subsequent owner, Eliza Reeve, became insane, and her guardian sold the property in 1878 to the Rev. Lewis Grout. Four members of the Reeve family held shares in the property, and Grout paid $375 for each share, a total of $1,500. The property comprised "about one acre of land with a dwelling house and other buildings situated thereon."
A native of Newfane, Vermont born on January 28, 1815, Lewis Grout attended the Brattleboro Academy during 1834-37 to prepare for college; his parents moved to West Brattleboro in 1836. Grout taught in the district schools of nearby towns before entering Yale College in 1838. After graduating in 1842, Grout taught for another year before returning in 1844 to Yale Divinity School, where he studied theology for two years. He then transferred to Andover Theological Seminary and graduated from there in 1846. On the same October day of that year, he married Lydia Bates (1818-97) and was ordained a missionary.
Two days later, the couple sailed from Boston for South Africa, and they reached the District of Natal in February, 1847. A daughter, Annie L. (1847-1901), was born there in July. Grout pursued his missionary efforts among the Zulus during the next fifteen years. That involved a great variety of intellectual and physical activities, among which he concentrated on study of the native languages. He prepared a Zulu grammar and dictionary, and translated the Bible and other books into that language. He published several books and articles in English about the Zulus and their homeland and language. Eventually his health began to suffer, and in 1862 the Grouts returned to the United States.
Lewis Grout next spent three years as Congregational minister at parishes in Vermont and Massachusetts. His missionary interests emerged again in 1865 when he became the secretary and agent for the American Missionary Association in his native state and New Hampshire. Grout continued in that position until 1834, while maintaining residency in West Brattleboro. The 1869 Beers map of Brattleboro shows that he owned a house on Greenleaf Road about one-half mile to the northwest of his next house.
Grout purchased the Reeve house in October, 1878 but the fate of that house is uncertain. The possibility exists that it was dismantled and its first-story framing was incorporated into the new house built for Grout. At three corners (excepting only the southwest living room) in the first-floor rooms, boxed posts protrude from the walls to indicate post-and-beam framing. The corners directly above in the second-floor rooms, however, lack such visible posts, indicating that the second story has different framing. Furthermore, the unfinished attic reveals circular-sawn balloon framing in its walls.
Mixed evidence appears in the foundation and the first-story floor joists exposed in the basement. Some of the latter are hand-hewn timbers, presumably dating from an earlier structure. The brick foundation, however, appears to have been laid entirely when the present house was built; this considerably larger and heavier house, of course, would have required a sturdier foundation than its predecessor.
The Grand Lists of taxable real estate in Brattleboro during the late 1870s and early 1880s contribute some evidence of when the present house was built. Prior to 1879, Lewis Grout is listed with one house, worth $1,550 in 1878. The 1879 listing reflects his purchase of the original house on Western Avenue; the Greenleaf Street house, located in School District No. 7, remained at $1,550 while a second house, located in School District No. 5 (West Brattleboro village), is listed at $1,000. Grout continued to own both houses in the 1880 listing, and their values remained the same.
Marked changes occurred in the listed values for 1881. The District No. 7 house increased to $2,000 but the District No. 5 house rose yet more to $1,700. This indicates strongly that the latter house was rebuilt or replaced during 1880. The Grand List for 1882 records only the District No, 5 house, worth $1,700, in Grout's possession; apparently by then he had sold the District No. 7 house : The next year, 1883, the District No. 5 house was reappraised at $2,000, possibly reflecting the completion of both the house and attached carriage barn; the value remained at that amount for some years thereafter.
Regardless of its structural origin, therefore, the present house was erected for Lewis Grout probably in 1880. The builder(s) have not been identified, although undoubtedly they were local carpenters and craftsmen. The classified business directory in Child's Windham County gazetteer of 1884 lists at least eleven "Carpenters and Builders" who resided in West Brattleboro (together with four times that number elsewhere in Brattleboro township). These names almost certainly include the builder(s) of the Grout house.
The Gothic Revival design of the Grout house, in contrast, may derive from an antipodal source. According to Stockwell family oral history, the design reflects the style displayed by British colonial administrators' houses in South Africa during the period of Grout's residency there. The question remains whether Grout may have sketched the design for construction or been assisted by a local architect or builder in its expression. Regardless, its Gothic Revival character was virtually antediluvian by that point in architectural fashion for houses in the United States. Gothic Revival influence in church architecture, however, persisted through most of Grout's career, and that undoubtedly influenced his choice of design.
Only a few years after the completion of this house, Lewis Grout served his last pastorate (1885 to 1888) at a church in Sudbury, Vermont, roughly one hundred miles to the northwest. At least his daughter, Annie, probably remained in West Brattleboro during this period. Never married, she taught school during the 1870s and then engaged primarily in botanical research around Brattleboro during the 1880s and 1890s; she discovered a variety of fern not previously known to exist in this country. On April 23, 1897, her mother, Julia Grout, died; Annie lived only four years thereafter. Lewis outlived both, reaching the advanced age of 91 by his death on March 12, 1905.
After the widower's death, the executor of his estate sold "all the real estate whereof said Lewis Grout died seized." In November, 1905, Julius L. Stockwell paid $3,000 for the property; a neighboring merchant, he had served as pall bearer at Grout's funeral. Julius Stockwell (1866-1936) and his cousin, Walter D. Stockwell, had founded in 1888 a general merchandise store situated diagonally across the village's main street from the Grout house. Julius purchased his cousin's interest in 1894, and continued the business thereafter by himself. In 1899, he became postmaster of West Brattleboro with the post office in his store; the office was soon reduced to a station of the Brattleboro post office but Julius continued to serve as its clerk until 1931.
Julius and his wife, Julia Tyler (1866-1950), settled into the Grout house and the couple lived here for the next three decades. Various relatively minor changes were made in the house during their residency. Probably during the 1910s, the front porch was extended from a single bay to three bays with matching components. The floors in the main block were mostly relaid with narrow hardwood boards. Doorways in the front parlors were broadened for French doors or the Tuscan-columned opening. Lastly (probably the early 1930s), a rectangular bay window was added to the north facade, replacing a Gothic Revival door.
Minor changes were also made in the carriage barn. Julius Stockwell used a horse-drawn wagon to deliver goods from the store to customers living in the vicinity of West Brattleboro. Three box stalls marked by small fixed sash on the south facade were built in the barn to accommodate the horses.
Julius subsequently shifted to an automobile. A garage for it was built about 1925 along the north property line at a safe distance from the house in case of fire. This outbuilding has remained unaltered except for the installation during the 1930s of the Gothic Revival door removed from the house's north facade.
Well-known locally as a leading storekeeper, Julius Stockwell also served in various municipal and organizational positions. The former included member of the town school board for several terms, overseer of the poor, and constable. His directorships of the Brattleboro Trust Co. and the Board of Trade complemented his business interests. He continued to operate the store until his death on January 18, 1936 at the age of 69. His widow, Julia, would outlive him by fourteen years, and continue to live in this house until her death on October 10, 1950.
Two children, Hazen E. (1896-1963) and Katherine (1904-1995) were born to Julia and Julius Stockwell. Although Hazen succeeded his father in the store business (and lived to about the same age), he did not reside in this house after childhood.
The Stockwell family sold the store in the late 1960s following Hazen's death.
Katherine departed Vermont upon her marriage in 1934 to Richard L. Geehr of New Jersey. She returned to live in this house in 1950, and remained here for the rest of her life. She taught in the nearby West Brattleboro elementary school for the latter half of her forty-year teaching career. Ultimately she became the longest-term occupant of the house by the time of her death on September 25, 1995.
Only insignificant changes were made in the house during Katherine Geehr's ownership. Her efforts were directed primarily toward maintaining the existing historic fabric in sound condition, and replacing in kind any components when necessary. An outstanding example of the latter involved the double-leaf doors in the ell's left garage bay; when the original softwood doors showed signs of decay, they were replaced with the present handcrafted oak counterparts.
Katherine Geehr's son, Richard S. Geehr (born 1938), has pursued a teaching career at the college level, currently being Professor of History at Bentley College in Massachusetts. He has also taken an active role in the maintenance of this house, especially the exterior painting, during his mother's ownership. Upon her death, he inherited the property and intends to continue the maintenance of the buildings in excellent condition.
The Lewis Grout House now constitutes a carefully preserved representative of late Gothic Revival domestic architecture possessing an unusually high degree of historic integrity. Similarly the connected carriage barn preserves its Gothic Revival character echoing that of the house, an outstanding example of its type and period. The related garage also retains intact its vernacular design, typifying detached one-car garages built during the 1920s. Together with their informally landscaped grounds, these buildings comprise an historic residential cluster of exceptional quality.
Beers, F. W., et al. Atlas of Windham Co., Vermont. New York: F. W. Beers, A. D. Ellis, & G. G. Soule, 1869.
Burnham, Henry. "Brattleboro." in Hemenway, Abby Maria., comp. Vermont Historical Gazetteer, Vol. V. Brandon, Vt.: Mrs. Carrie E. H. Page, 1892.
Cabot, Mary R., comp. Annals of Brattleboro 1681-1895 (2 vols.). Brattleboro, Vt.: Press of E. L. Hildreth & Co., 1921.
Child, Hamilton, comp. Gazetteer and Business Directory of Windham County, Vt., 1724-1884. Syracuse, N. Y., 1884.
"Long Prominent Local Merchant." Vermont Phoenix, January 24, 1936, 5.
"Rev. Lewis Grout, the Veteran Missionary." Vermont Phoenix, March 17, 1905, 3.
"Stockwell Geneology." Unpublished typescript. 1986? Collection of Richard S. Geehr, West Brattleboro, Vt.
Brattleboro Land Records. Books 30, 47, 70, and 90. Available at Town Clerk's Office, Brattleboro, Vt.
Brattleboro Grand Lists. 1877-1884. Available at Town Clerk's Office, Brattleboro, Vt.
DATE ENTERED: November 7, 1996.
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